• castration-resistant prostate cancer;
  • zibotentan;
  • endothelin;
  • endothelin A receptor antagonism

Study Type – Therapy (RCT) Level of Evidence 1b


To report the final analysis of a Phase II trial, which investigated the safety and efficacy of the specific endothelin A receptor antagonist zibotentan (AstraZeneca, Macclesfield, UK) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).


Patients with CRPC and bone metastases who were pain free or mildly symptomatic for pain were randomized to receive once-daily oral tablets of zibotentan 10 mg, 15 mg or placebo. The primary endpoint was the time to progression and secondary endpoints included overall survival, change in the number of bone metastases, and safety.


In total, 312 patients were randomized (placebo, n= 107; zibotentan 10 mg, n= 107; zibotentan 15 mg, n= 98). The median duration of study treatment and median follow-up time were 4 and 22 months, respectively. At the final analysis, there were no statistical differences of the primary outcome of time to progression between treatment groups, although an improvement in overall survival was observed in the zibotentan groups compared to placebo. Consistent with the previous analyses for overall survival, hazard ratios (HRs) of less than one were sustained for both zibotentan 15 mg (HR, 0.76; 80% CI, 0.61–0.94; P= 0.103) and 10 mg (HR, 0.83; 80% CI, 0.67–1.02; P= 0.254). The most commonly reported adverse events considered to be related to zibotentan treatment were peripheral oedema, headache and nasal congestion.


The results obtained in the present study support endothelin A receptor antagonism as an approach for treating patients with CRPC. To confirm the survival signal observed in the present study, zibotentan is being investigated further in the ENdoTHelin A USE (ENTHUSE) Phase III clinical trial programme.