• 1
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, Hao Y, Xu J, Thun MJ. Cancer statistics, 2009. CA Cancer J Clin 2009; 59: 22549
  • 2
    McDavid K, Lee J, Fulton JP, Tonita J, Thompson TD. Prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates and trends in the United States and Canada. Public Health Rep 2004; 119: 17486
  • 3
    Kasper S, Cookson MS. Mechanisms leading to the development of hormone-resistant prostate cancer. Urol Clin North Am 2006; 33: 20110, vii
  • 4
    Bagnato A, Natali PG. Endothelin receptors as novel targets in tumor therapy. J Transl Med 2004; 2: 16
  • 5
    Nelson J, Bagnato A, Battistini B, Nisen P. The endothelin axis: emerging role in cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 2003; 3: 1106
  • 6
    Okazawa M, Shiraki T, Ninomiya H, Kobayashi S, Masaki T. Endothelin-induced apoptosis of A375 human melanoma cells. J Biol Chem 1998; 273: 1258492
  • 7
    Fukuroda T, Fujikawa T, Ozaki S, Ishikawa K, Yano M, Nishikibe M. Clearance of circulating endothelin-1 by ETB receptors in rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994; 199: 14615
  • 8
    Morris C, Wilson D, Hughes A, Le Maulf F, Brahma S, Fuhr R. ZD4054: specificity for endothelin A receptor following single dose administration in healthy volunteers. Eur J Cancer Suppl 2004; 2: 26
  • 9
    Smollich M, Götte M, Fischgräbe J et al. Specific endothelin A receptor antagonist ZD4054 reduces breast cancer cell migration and invasion and exhibits synergistic effects with aromatase inhibitors and fulvestrant. AACR: Advs Cancer Res: from Lab to Clinic, Jordan 2008; abst PR8
  • 10
    Rosano L, Di Castro V, Spinella F, Decandia S, Natali PG, Bagnato A. ZD4054, a potent endothelin receptor A antagonist, inhibits ovarian carcinoma cell proliferation. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2006; 231: 11325
  • 11
    Growcott JW. Preclinical anticancer activity of the specific endothelin A receptor antagonist ZD4054. Anticancer Drugs 2009; 20: 838
  • 12
    Morris CD, Rose A, Curwen J, Hughes AM, Wilson DJ, Webb DJ. Specific inhibition of the endothelin A receptor with ZD4054: clinical and pre-clinical evidence. Br J Cancer 2005; 92: 214852
  • 13
    James ND, Caty A, Borre M et al. Safety and efficacy of the specific endothelin A receptor antagonist ZD4054 in patients with hormone-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases who were pain free or mildly symptomatic: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, Phase II trial. Eur Urol 2009; 55: 111223
  • 14
    Dawson N, Battersby C, Hughes S, Taboada M, James N. Patient-reported outcomes of a randomized placebo-controlled Phase II trial of the specific endothelin A receptor antagonist ZD4054 in pain-free or mildly symptomatic patients with metastatic hormone-resistant prostate cancer. Genitourin Cancer Symp Proc 2009; abst 204
  • 15
    Morris CD, Hughes A, Rose A, Melville V, Webb DJ. ZD4054 reduces endothelin-1-induced forearm vasoconstriction in healthy male volunteers. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 2005; 46: abst 4187
  • 16
    Therasse P, Arbuck SG, Eisenhauer EA et al. New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, National Cancer Institute of the United States, National Cancer Institute of Canada. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92: 20516
  • 17
    Trotti A, Colevas AD, Setser A et al. CTCAE v3.0: development of a comprehensive grading system for the adverse effects of a cancer treatment. Semin Radiat Oncol 2003; 13: 17681
  • 18
    O’Brien PC, Fleming TR. A multiple testing procedure for clinical trials. Biometrics 1979; 35: 54956
  • 19
    Small EJ, Schellhammer PF, Higano CS et al. Placebo-controlled phase III trial of immunologic therapy with sipuleucel-T (APC8015) in patients with metastatic, asymptomatic hormone refractory prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 2006; 24: 308994
  • 20
    Beer TM, Ryan CW. The hazards of intermediate endpoints. Cancer 2007; 110: 18779
  • 21
    Scher HI, Halabi S, Tannock I et al. Design and end points of clinical trials for patients with progressive prostate cancer and castrate levels of testosterone: recommendations of the Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Working Group. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26: 114859
  • 22
    Petrylak DP, Tangen CM, Hussain MH et al. Docetaxel and estramustine compared with mitoxantrone and prednisone for advanced refractory prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 151320
  • 23
    Tannock IF, De Wit R, Berry WR et al. Docetaxel plus prednisone or mitoxantrone plus prednisone for advanced prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 150212
  • 24
    Pflug BR, McHugh K, D’Antonio JM et al. Defining the basis of an operational model for enhanced efficacy of combination therapy using an endothelin receptor antagonist and chemotherapeutic agents. Mol Cancer Ther 2007; 6: abst A287
  • 25
    McMurray JJ, Teerlink JR, Cotter G et al. Effects of tezosentan on symptoms and clinical outcomes in patients with acute heart failure: the VERITAS randomized controlled trials. JAMA 2007; 298: 200919