• 1
    Campbell S, Novick A, Bukowski R. Treatment of locally advanced renal cell carcinoma. In CampbellS, WalshP eds. Urology, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., 2007: 161922
  • 2
    Green FL, Page DL, Fleming ID et al. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, 6th edn. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2002
  • 3
    Edge SB, Byrd DR, Carducci MA, Compton CC eds. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, 7th edn. New York: Springer, 2009
  • 4
    Wagner B, Patard JJ, Mejean A et al. Prognostic value of renal vein and inferior vena cava involvement in renal cell carcinoma. Eur Urol 2009; 55: 45260
  • 5
    Klatte T, Pantuck AJ, Riggs SB et al. Prognostic factors for renal cell carcinoma with tumor thrombus extension. J Urol 2007; 178: 118995
  • 6
    Ficarra V, Novara G, Iafrate M et al. Proposal of reclassification of TNM staging system in patients with locally advanced (pT3–pT4) renal cell carcinoma according to the cancer-related outcome. Eur Urol 2007; 51: 72231
  • 7
    Thompson RH, Cheville JC, Lohse CM et al. Reclassification of patients with pT3 and pT4 renal cell carcinoma improves prognostic accuracy. Cancer 2005; 104: 5360
  • 8
    Margulis V, Tamboli P, Matin SF et al. Redefining pT3 renal cell carcinoma in the modern era. Cancer 2007; 109: 243944
  • 9
    Roos FC, Weirich J, Victo A et al. Impact of several histopathological prognosticators and local tumor extension on oncological outcome in pT3b/c N0M0 renal cell carcinoma. BJU Int 2009; 104: 4619
  • 10
    Haferkamp A, Bastian PJ, Jakobi H et al. Renal cell carcinoma with tumor thrombus extension into the inferior vena cava: prospective long-term followup. J Urol 2007; 177: 17038
  • 11
    Vaidya A, Ciancio G, Soloway M. Surgical techniques for treating a renal neoplasm invading the inferior vena cava. J Urol 2003; 169: 43544
  • 12
    Rigaud J, Hetet JF, Braud G et al. Surgical care, morbidity, mortality and follow-up after nephrectomy for renal cancer with extension of tumor thrombus into the inferior vena cava: retrospective study since 1990s. Eur Urol 2006; 50: 30210
  • 13
    Bissada NK, Yakout HH, Babanouri A et al. Long-term experience with management of renal cell carcinoma involving the inferior vena cava. Urology 2003; 61: 8992
  • 14
    Lambert HE, Pierorazio PM, Shabsigh A et al. Prognostic risk stratification and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing surgical treatment for renal cell carcinoma with vascular tumor thrombus. Urology 2007; 69: 10548
  • 15
    Leibovich BC, Cheville JC, Lohse CM et al. Cancer specific survival for patients with pT3 renal cell carcinoma – can the 2002 primary tumor classification be improved? J Urol 2005; 173: 71619