Incidence of lymphoceles after robot-assisted pelvic lymph node dissection
Article first published online: 12 APR 2011
© 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL
Volume 108, Issue 7, pages 1185–1189, October 2011
How to Cite
Orvieto, M. A., Coelho, R. F., Chauhan, S., Palmer, K. J., Rocco, B. and Patel, V. R. (2011), Incidence of lymphoceles after robot-assisted pelvic lymph node dissection. BJU International, 108: 1185–1189. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10094.x
- Issue published online: 13 SEP 2011
- Article first published online: 12 APR 2011
- Accepted for publication 8 October 2010
- pelvic lymph node;
- lymphodeveatary complications
Study Type – Therapy (case series)
Level of Evidence 4
What’s known on the subject? and What does the study add?
Lymphocele formation after open pelvic lymph-node dissection is a known complication. However, reported incidences using the robotic approach are unclear and likely underestimated. The present study aims to better understand the true incidence of lymphocele formation after RARP.
• To determine the incidence and predictive factors of lymphocele formation in patients undergoing pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP).
PATIENTS AND METHODS
• Between April and December 2008, 76 patients underwent PLND during RARP for ≥cT2c, prostate-specific antigen level ≥10, Gleason score ≥7 prostate cancer.
• All patients were prospectively followed up with pelvic computed tomography 6–12 weeks after the procedure.
• All patients received s.c. heparin preoperatively and postoperatively. PLND was limited to zones 1 and 2 as defined by Studer.
• Plasma-kinetic bipolar forceps were used for haemostasis during PLND.
• At a mean follow-up of 10.8 weeks, 51% (39/76) of patients had developed a lymphocele. Of these 39 lymphoceles 32 (82%) were unilateral and seven (18%) were bilateral.
• The mean (range) lymphocele size was 4.3 × 3.2 (1.5–12.3) cm; 41% of lymphoceles were <4 cm, 53.9% were 4–10 cm, and 5.1% were >10 cm in diameter. Six of the 39 lymphoceles (15.4%) were clinically symptomatic. The symptoms were as follows: pelvic pressure in five patients, abdominal distension with ileus in three patients, leg pain/weakness in one patient and costovertebral tenderness in one patient. Two lymphoceles required intervention.
• On the logistic regression model the presence of nodal metastases, tumour volume in the prostate specimen and extracapsular extension (ECE) were independent risk factors for the development of a lymphocele.
• There was no correlation between estimated blood loss, body mass index, pathological Gleason score or number nodes dissected and the presence of lymphocele.
• The incidence of lymphoceles was higher than anticipated given the believed protective effect of the transperitoneal approach against lymphocele formation.
• The risk of lymphocele seemed to increase linearly with the presence of more extensive disease, particularly ECE and nodal involvement.
• The benefit of PLND during RARP should be weighed against the elevated risk of lymphocele formation and its potential complications.