Comparison of rates and risk factors for development of anaemia and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent utilization after radical or partial nephrectomy


Ithaar H. Derweesh, Division of Urology, Moores UCSD Cancer Center, 3855 Health Sciences Drive, Mail Code: 0987, La Jolla, CA 92093-0987, USA. e-mail:


Study Type – Therapy (case series)

Level of Evidence 4

What's known on the subject? and What does the study add?

The consequences and significance of iatrogenically-induced CKD are poorly understood. Most data regarding risk of CKD and its complications are inferred from the medical literature.

This is the first study to examine impact of surgical management of renal masses on development of anaemia. Patients who underwent radical nephrectomy had a significantly higher incidence of anaemia and ESA utilization than a contemporary well-matched cohort that underwent partial nephrectomy. The results obtained add to the growing body of data supporting the use of partial nephrectomy in the management of clinically appropriate renal masses.


  • • To examine the incidence of and risk factors for the development of anaemia and erythropoiesis-stimulation agent (ESA) treatment in patients undergoing radical nephrectomy (RN) and partial nephrectomy (PN) because anaemia is a significant cause of morbidity in chronic kidney disease.


  • • The study comprised a retrospective review of 905 patients (610 RN/295 PN; mean age, 57.5 years; mean follow-up, 6.4 years) who underwent surgery for renal tumours at two institutions from July 1987 to June 2007.
  • • Demographics, disease characteristics and pre- and postoperative (i.e. renal function, metabolic parameters, anaemia and ESA treatment) were recorded.
  • • Data were analyzed within subgroups based on treatment (RN vs PN).
  • • Multivariate analysis was conducted to determine the risk factors for developing anaemia after surgery.


  • • Tumour size (cm) was significantly larger for RN (RN 7.0 vs PN 3.7; P < 0.001). No significant differences were noted with respect to demographics and preoperative anaemia (RN 16.4% vs PN 18.6%; P= 0.454) and ESA-treatment (RN 0.7% vs PN 1.4%; P= 0.499).
  • • After surgery, significantly less de novo anaemia (PN 4.1% vs RN 17.5%; P < 0.001) and ESA utilization (PN 2.7% vs RN 13.4%; P < 0.001) occurred in the PN cohort.
  • • Multivariate analysis showed that age ≥60 years (odds ratio, OR, 1.62; P= 0.008), African American ethnicity (OR, 2.30; P < 0.001), smoking (OR, 1.60; P= 0.013), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (OR, 4.09; P < 0.001), ≥1+ proteinuria (OR, 2.19; P < 0.03), metabolic acidosis (OR, 4.08; P= 0.007) and RN (OR, 2.58; P < 0.001) were significantly associated with de novo anaemia.


  • • Patients who underwent RN had a significantly higher prevalence of anaemia and ESA-treatment compared to a well-matched cohort that underwent PN.
  • • In addition to RN, age ≥60 years, African American ethnicity, history of smoking, GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, proteinuria and metabolic acidosis were associated with developing anaemia.