Landmarks in prostate cancer diagnosis: the biomarkers
Article first published online: 10 OCT 2012
© 2012 THE AUTHOR. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL
Special Issue: Landmarks in Prostate Cancer
Volume 110, Issue Supplement s1, pages 8–13, October 2012
How to Cite
Artibani, W. (2012), Landmarks in prostate cancer diagnosis: the biomarkers. BJU International, 110: 8–13. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.011429.x
- Issue published online: 10 OCT 2012
- Article first published online: 10 OCT 2012
- prostate cancer;
- • The main diagnostic biomarker in current use is prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and it is one of the recommended diagnostic tools from the European Association of Urology Guidelines on prostate cancer.
- • One of the challenges with PSA is that men with very low levels of PSA can harbour prostate cancer, making it difficult to set a lower limit.
- • Several modifications to PSA biomarker detection have been suggested to improve its sensitivity and selectivity including PSA density, free:total PSA, PSA velocity/doubling time and different PSA isoforms.
- • However, there remains a need to improve accuracy of diagnosis and this has led to research in to a number of promising new biomarkers.
- • These include genetic and blood or urine based biomarkers. The most advanced of these is prostate cancer gene 3 found in urine and developed into a commercial test in 2006.
- • Other promising markers include circulating tumour cells (CTC) in blood, which have been correlated with survival in castration-resistant prostate cancer. A system for evaluating CTC was approved by the USA Food and Drug Administration in 2008.