SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Willott GM. Frequency of azoospermia. Forensic Sci Int 1982; 20: 910
  • 2
    Jarow JP, Espeland MA, Lipshultz LI. Evaluation of the azoospermic patients. J Urol 1989; 142: 6265
  • 3
    Silber SJ, Van Sterirteghem A, Nagy Z, Liu J, Tournaye H, Devroey P. Normal pregnancies resulting from testicular extraction and intracytoplasmatic sperm injection for azoospermia due to maturation arrest. Fertil Steril 1996; 66: 110117
  • 4
    Chan PT, Schlegel PN. Nonobstructive azoospermia. Curr Opin Urol 2000; 10: 617624
  • 5
    Wald M, Niederberger CS, Ross LS. Surgical sperm retrieval for assisted reproduction. Minerva Ginecol 2004; 56: 217222
  • 6
    Silber JS, Johnson L. Are spermatid injections of any clinical value? Hum Reprod 1998; 13: 509523
  • 7
    Tsujimura A, Matsumiya K, Miyagawa Y et al. Prediction of successful outcome of microdissection testicular sperm extraction in men with idiopathic nonobstructive azoospermia. J Urol 2004; 172: 19441947
  • 8
    Samli MM, Dogan I. An artificial neural network for predicting the presence of spermatozoa in the testes of men with nonobstructive azoospermia. J Urol 2004; 171: 23542357
  • 9
    Chen CS, Chu SH, Lai YM, Wang ML, Chan PR. Reconsideration of testicular biopsy and follicle-stimulating hormone measurement in the era of intracytoplasmic sperm injection for non-obstructive azoospermia? Hum Reprod 1996; 11: 21762179
  • 10
    Jezek D, Knuth UA, Schulze W. Successful testicular sperm extraction (TESE) in spite of high serum follicle stimulating hormone and azoospermia: correlation between testicular morphology, TESE results, semen analysis and serum hormone values in 103 infertile men. Hum Reprod 1998; 13: 12301234
  • 11
    Vernaeve V, Tournaye H, Schiettacatte J, Verheyen G, Van Steirteghem A, Devroey P. Serum inhibin B cannot predict testicular sperm retrieval in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia. Hum Reprod 2002; 17: 971976
  • 12
    Brandell RA, Mielnik A, Liotta D et al. AZFb deletions predict the absence of spermatozoa with testicular sperm extraction: preliminary report of a prognostic genetic test. Hum Reprod 1998; 13: 28122815
  • 13
    Foresta C, Moro E, Ferlin A. Y chromosome microdeletions and alternations of spermatogenesis. Endocr Rev 2001; 22: 226239
  • 14
    Hopps CV, Mielnik A, Goldstein M, Palermo GD, Rosenwaks Z, Schlegel PN. Detection of sperm in men with Y chromosome microdeletions of the AZFa, AZFb and AZFc regions. Hum Reprod 2003; 18: 16601665
  • 15
    Tesarik J, Sousa M, Greco E, Mendoza C. Spermatids as gametes: indications and limitations. Hum Reprod 1998; 13 (Suppl. 3): 89107
  • 16
    Har-Toov J, Eytan O, Hauser R, Yavetz H, Elad D, Jaffa AJ. A new power Doppler ultrasound guiding technique for improved testicular sperm extraction. Fertil Steril 2004; 81: 430434
  • 17
    Ezeh UIO, Taub NA, Moore HD, Cooke ID. Establishment of predictive variables associated with testicular sperm retrieval in men with nonobstructive azoospermia. Hum Reprod 1999; 14: 10051012
  • 18
    Tournaye H, Verheyen G, Nagy P et al. Are there any predictive factors for successful testicular sperm recovery in azoospermic patients? Hum Reprod 1997; 12: 8086
  • 19
    Sousa M, Cremades N, Silva J et al. Predictive value of testicular histology in secretory azoospermic subgroups and clinical outcome after microinjection of fresh and frozen-thawed sperm and spermatids. Hum Reprod 2002; 17: 18001810
  • 20
    Su LM, Palermo GD, Goldstein M, Veeck LL, Rosenwaks Z, Schlegel PN. Testicular sperm extraction with intracytoplasmatic sperm injection for nonobstructive azoospermia: testicular histology can predict success of sperm retrieval. J Urol 1999; 161: 112116
  • 21
    Johnsen SG. Testicular biopsy score count – a method for registration of spermatogenesis in human testes: normal values and results in 335 hypogonadal males. Hormones 1970; 1: 225
  • 22
    Schoor RA, Elhanbly S, Niederberger CS, Ross LS. The role of testicular biopsy in the modern management of male infertility. J Urol 2002; 167: 197200
  • 23
    Vicari E, Grazioso C, Burrello N, Cannizzaro M, D'Agata R, Calogero AE. Epididymal and testicular sperm retrieval in azoospermic patients and the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection in relation to the etiology of azoospermia. Fertil Steril 2001; 75: 215216
  • 24
    Schlegel PN, Su LM. Physiological consequences of testicular sperm extraction. Hum Reprod 1997; 12: 16881692
  • 25
    Mercan R, Urman B, Alatas C et al. Outcome of testicular sperm retrieval procedures in non-obstructive azoospermia: percutaneous aspiration versus open biopsy. Hum Reprod 2000; 15: 15481551
  • 26
    Rosenlund B, Kvist U, Ploen L, Rozell BL, Sjoblomm P, Hillensjo T. A comparison between open and percutaneous needle biopsies in men with azoospermia. Hum Reprod 1998; 13: 12661271
  • 27
    Mulhall JP, Burgesss CM, Cunningham D et al. Presence of mature sperm in testicular parenchyma of men with non obstructive azoospermia: prevalence and predictive factors. Urology 1997; 49: 9195
  • 28
    Silber SJ, Nagy Z, Liu J. Distribution of spermatogenesis in the testicles of azoospermic men: the presence or absence of spermatids in the testes of men with germinal failure. Hum Reprod 1997; 12: 24222428
  • 29
    Salzbrunn A, Benson DM, Holstein AF, Schulze W. A new concept for the extraction of testicular spermatozoa as a tool for assisted fertilization (ICSI). Hum Reprod 1996; 11: 752755
  • 30
    Martin-du-Pan RC, Bischof P. Increased follicle stimulating hormone in infertile men. Is increased plasma FSH always due to damaged germinal epithelium? Hum Reprod 1995; 10: 19401945
  • 31
    Takahira H, Sakatoku J, Fujii M et al. Significance of testicular size measurement in andrology. 1. A new orchidometer and its clinical application. Fertil Steril 1983; 39: 836840
  • 32
    Patel PJ, Pareek SS. Scrotal ultrasound in male infertility. Eur Urol 1989; 16: 423425
  • 33
    Matyas S, Papp G, Kovacs P, Balogh I, Rajczy K, Kopa Z. Intracytoplasmic injection with motile and immotile frozen-thawed teticular spermatozoa. Andrologia 2005; 35: 2528
  • 34
    Huang FJ, Chang SY, Tsai MY et al. Clinical implication of intracytoplasmic injection using cryopreserved testicular spermatozoa from men with azoospermia. J Reprod Med 2000; 45: 310316
  • 35
    Giorgetti C, Chinchole JM, Hans E et al. Crude cumulative delivery rate following ICSI using intentionally frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa in 51 men with non-obstructive azoospermia. Reprod Biomed Online 2005; 11: 319324
  • 36
    Ishikawa T, Shiotani M, Izumi Y et al. Fertilization and pregnancy using cryopreserved testicular sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection with azoospermia. Fertil Steril 2009; 92: 174179
  • 37
    Amer M, Ateyah A, Hany R et al. Prospective comparative study between microsurgical and conventional testicular sperm extraction in non-obstructive azoospermia: follow-up by serial ultrasound examinations. Hum Reprod 2000; 15: 653656
  • 38
    Dieckmann KP, Pichlmeier U. Clinical epidemiology of testicular germ cell tumors. World J Urol 2004; 22: 214
  • 39
    Novero V, Goosens A, Tournaye H et al. Seminoma discovered in two males undergoing successful sperm extraction for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Fertil Steril 1996; 65: 10511154
  • 40
    Pryor JP. Indications for vasovesiculography and testicular biopsy. An update. In Colpi GM , Pozza D eds, Diagnosing Male Infertility: New Possibilities and Limits, Basel: Karger, 1992: 130135