Association between chronic kidney disease and urinary calculus by stone location: a population-based study

Authors


Herng-Ching Lin, School of Health Care Administration, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing St., Taipei 110, Taiwan. e-mail: henry11111@tmu.edu.tw

Abstract

Study Type – Disease prevalence study (cohort design)

Level of Evidence 2a

What's known on the subject? and What does the study add?

Several studies have estimated the potential association of urinary calculus (UC) with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, previous literature focusing on this issue tended to evaluate the impact of kidney stones alone on incident CKD, with no studies having been conducted investigating the association between CKD and stone formation in other portions of the urological system.

We found that patients with CKD were consistently more likely than comparison subjects to have been previously diagnosed with kidney calculus (odds ratio [OR] 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.95–2.27), ureter calculus (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.51–1.85), bladder calculus (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.13–1.98), and unspecified calculus (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.74–2.06). We concluded that there was an association between CKD and UC regardless of stone location.

OBJECTIVE

  • • To explore the association of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with prior kidney calculus, ureter calculus, and bladder calculus using a population-based dataset in Taiwan. Several studies have estimated the potential association of urinary calculus (UC) with CKD. However, previous literature focusing on this issue tended to evaluate the impact of kidney stones alone on incident CKD, with no studies having been conducted investigating the association between CKD and stone formation in other portions of the urological system.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

  • • We identified 21 474 patients who received their first-time diagnosis of CKD between 2001 and 2009.
  • • The 21 474 controls were frequency-matched with cases for sex, age group, and index year.
  • • We used conditional logistic regression analyses to compute the odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) as an estimation of association between CKD and having been previously diagnosed with UC.

RESULTS

  • • The results show that compared with controls, the OR of prior UC for cases was 1.91 (95% CI 1.81–2.01, P < 0.001) after adjusting for potential confounders.
  • • Furthermore, cases were consistently more likely than controls to have been previously diagnosed with kidney calculus (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.95–2.27), ureter calculus (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.51–1.85), bladder calculus (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.13–1.98), and unspecified UC (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.74–2.06).

CONCLUSION

  • • We concluded that there was an association between ckd and UC regardless of stone location.

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