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Keywords:

  • metabolic syndrome;
  • prostate cancer;
  • risk;
  • aggressive

What's known on the subject? and What does the study add?

  • Metabolic syndrome can identify patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide and is associated with increased age, obesity and hypogonadism. The association between metabolic syndrome and prostate cancer development has not been studied comprehensively, and published studies report divergent results.
  • This study indicates that tumours detected in men with metabolic syndrome are more aggressive than those detected in men without this condition.

Objective

  • To further examine the association between metabolic syndrome (MS), prostate cancer (PC) detection risk and tumour aggressiveness.

Patients and Methods

  • From 2006 to 2010, 2408 men not receiving 5α-reductase inhibitors were scheduled for prostatic biopsy due to PSA above 4 ng/mL and/or abnormal digital rectal examination.
  • MS was evaluated according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults, Adult Treatment Panel III definition.
  • Tumour aggressiveness was evaluated through biopsy Gleason score, clinical stage and risk of biochemical recurrence after primary treatment.

Results

  • The rates of PC detection were 34.5% and 36.4% respectively in men with and without MS, P = 0.185. High grade PC rates (Gleason score 8–10) were 35.9% and 23.9% respectively, P < 0.001. The advanced disease rates (cT3–4 N0–1 M0–1) were 17% and 12.7% respectively, P = 0.841.
  • The high risk PC rates (cT2c–4 or Gleason score 8–10 or PSA > 20) were 38.5% and 33.0% respectively, P = 0.581.
  • Multivariate analysis confirmed that MS was not associated with the risk of PC detection but it was associated with an increased risk of high grade tumours (odds ratio 1.75, 95% CI 1.26–2.41), P < 0.001.

Conclusion

  • MS seems not be associated with an increased risk of PC detection but it is associated with an increased risk of more aggressive tumours.