L.P.B. and X.Z. contributed equally to this article.
Positive predictive value of prostate biopsy indicated by prostate-specific-antigen-based prostate cancer screening: trends over time in a European randomized trial*
Article first published online: 8 OCT 2012
© 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL
Volume 110, Issue 11, pages 1654–1660, December 2012
How to Cite
Bokhorst, L. P., Zhu, X., Bul, M., Bangma, C. H., Schröder, F. H. and Roobol, M. J. (2012), Positive predictive value of prostate biopsy indicated by prostate-specific-antigen-based prostate cancer screening: trends over time in a European randomized trial. BJU International, 110: 1654–1660. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11481.x
Trial registration: ISRCTN49127736.
- Issue published online: 6 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 8 OCT 2012
- Accepted for publication 31 July 2012
- predictive value of tests;
- positive predictive value;
- prostatic neoplasms;
- prostate-specific antigen;
Study Type – Diagnosis (validating cohort)
Level of Evidence 1b
What's known on the subject? and What does the study add?
The European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) showed a reduction in prostate cancer mortality of 21% for PSA-based screening at a median follow-up of 11 years. In the ERSPC, men are screened at 4-year intervals. A prostate biopsy is recommended for men with a PSA level ≥3.0 ng/mL.
The study shows that the positive predictive value (PPV) of a prostate biopsy indicated by PSA-based screening remains equal throughout consecutive screening rounds in men without a previous biopsy. In men who have previously had a benign biopsy, the PPV drops considerably, but 20% of the cancers detected still show aggressive characteristics.
- • To assess the positive predictive value (PPV) of prostate biopsy, indicated by a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) threshold of ≥3.0 ng/mL, over time, in the Rotterdam section of the European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC).
PATIENTS AND METHODS
- • In the Rotterdam section of the ERSPC, a total of 42 376 participants, aged 55–74 years, identified from population registries were randomly assigned to a screening or control arm.
- • For the ERSPC men undergo PSA screening at 4-year intervals. A total of three screening rounds were evaluated; therefore, only men aged 55–69 years at the first screening were eligible for the present study.
- • PPVs for men without previous biopsy remained equal throughout the three subsequent screenings (25.5, 22.3 and 24.8% respectively).
- • Conversely, PPVs for men with a previous negative biopsy dropped significantly (12.0 and 15.2% at the second and third screening, respectively).
- • Additionally, in men with and without previous biopsy, the percentage of aggressive prostate cancers (clinical stage >T2b, Gleason score ≥7) decreased after the first round of screening from 44.4 to 23.8% in the second (P < 0.001) and 18.6% in the third round (P < 0.001).
- • Repeat biopsies accounted for 24.6% of all biopsies, but yielded only 8.6% of all aggressive cancers.
- • In consecutive screening rounds the PPV of PSA-based screening remains equal in previously unbiopsied men.
- • In men with a previous negative biopsy the PPV drops considerably, but 20% of cancers detected still show aggressive characteristics.
- • Individualized screening algorithms should incorporate previous biopsy status in the decision to perform a repeat biopsy with the aim of further reducing unnecessary biopsies.