Long-term survival after radical surgery for renal cell carcinoma with tumour thrombus extension into the right atrium
Article first published online: 18 SEP 2012
© 2012 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL
Volume 111, Issue 3b, pages E59–E64, March 2013
How to Cite
Dominik, J., Moravek, P., Zacek, P., Vojacek, J., Brtko, M., Podhola, M., Pacovsky, J. and Harrer, J. (2013), Long-term survival after radical surgery for renal cell carcinoma with tumour thrombus extension into the right atrium. BJU International, 111: E59–E64. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11515.x
- Issue published online: 1 MAR 2013
- Article first published online: 18 SEP 2012
- Accepted for publication 11 July 2012
- renal cell carcinoma (RCC);
- tumour thrombus;
- right atrium;
- deep hypothermic circulatory arrest;
What's known on the subject? and What does the study add?
Surgical treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with tumour thrombus extending into the right atrium remains, despite its complexity and specific technical aspects, the only radical therapeutic option.
This single-centre study, unique in size for this rare condition, reports early and late results over a period of 18 years. All patients were operated on using a standardised protocol with use of cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Overall and cancer-specific cumulative survival was better than in other reports.
- • To evaluate the long-term results of radical surgical management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with tumour thrombus extension (TTE) level IV into the right atrium (RCC/TTE IV) in a large single-institution series.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
- • Radical complex urological and cardio-surgical procedure was performed over a period of 18 years (1993–2010) on 21 patients with RCC/TTE IV. A radical nephrectomy was performed followed by sternotomy, institution of cardiopulmonary bypass and extraction of the intracardiac tumour thrombus under direct visual control during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA).
- • Perioperative and postoperative variables, and long-term overall and cancer-specific survival using the Kaplan–Meier method were analysed.
- • In all patients, precise removal of tumour thrombus was accomplished in a bloodless field during DHCA.
- • The mean (sd) duration of circulatory arrest was 16 (6) min at a mean hypothermia of 20 (3) °C. In-hospital mortality was 9.5% (two patients).
- • The median survival (including in-hospital mortality) was 25 months.
- • In Kaplan–Meier analysis, 2- and 5-year overall cumulative survival rate was 57 (95% confidence interval, CI 36–78)% and 37 (95% CI 15–58)%, respectively.
- • Cancer-specific cumulative survival was 68 (95% CI 49–89)% at 2 years and 51 (95% CI 28–74)% at 5 years.
- • Late outcome after radical surgical treatment in patients with RCC and TTE reaching up to the right atrium justifies this extensive procedure.
- • Cardiopulmonary bypass with DHCA allows safe and precise extirpation of all intracaval and intracardiac tumour mass.