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Keywords:

  • complication;
  • radical cystectomy;
  • morbidity;
  • mortality

Study Type – Therapy (outcomes)

Level of Evidence 2b

What's known on the subject? and What does the study add?

Radical cystectomy remains associated with comparatively high perioperative morbidity and mortality, despite improvements in surgical techniques and perioperative care. At present, most studies on the complications associated with open radical cystectomy were derived from Western academic high-volume centres, and data from Japan and other Asian countries were very limited.

Using the modified Clavien grading system and 11 category grouping reported from MSKCC, we observed that 68% of patients experienced at least one complication within 90 days of surgery, and 17% of patients experienced major complications (90-day mortality rate = 2%), which were compatible with reports from Western high-volume centres. As far as we know, our report is the largest one regarding perioperative morbidity and mortality in Asian patients who underwent radical cystectomy.

Objective

  • To determine the type, incidence and severity of 90-day morbidity after radical cystectomy in our institution and our affiliated hospitals in accordance with a standard reporting methodology. At present, most studies on complications associated with open radical cystectomy are derived from Western academic high-volume centres and data from Japan and other Asian countries remain very limited.

Patients and Methods

  • The study comprised a retrospective multi-institutional study.
  • The records were reviewed of 928 patients who underwent open radical cystectomy between 1997 and 2010.
  • All complications within 90 days of surgery were categorized into 11 specific categories and graded in accordance with the modified Clavien system.
  • Multivariate regression models were used to determine predictors of complications.

Results

  • At least one complication was observed in 635 (68%) patients and a major (grade 3–5) complication was observed in 156 (17%) patients.
  • The most common complication categories were infectious (30%), gastrointestinal (26%), wound-related (21%) and genitourinary (15%).
  • The 30-day mortality rate was 0.8% and the 90-day mortality rate was 2%.
  • A multivariate regression model showed that previous cardiovascular comorbidity and type of urinary diversion (i.e. ileal conduit or neobladder) were significant factors for any and major complications.

Conclusions

  • Surgical complication-related radical cystectomy is significant and both previous cardiovascular comorbidity and the type of urinary diversion were found to be significant factors for any and major complications.
  • The 90-day mortality rate was 2%, which is compatible with reports from Western high-volume centres.