• 1
    National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health. Prostate Cancer. Available at: Accessed September 2011
  • 2
    O'Shaughnessy M, Konety B, Warlick C. Prostate cancer screening: issues and controversies. Minn Med 2010; 93: 3944
  • 3
    SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Prostate. National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results. 2012
  • 4
    Amling CL, Blute ML, Bergstralh EJ, Seay TM, Slezak J, Zincke H. Long-term hazard of progression after radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer: continued risk of biochemical failure after 5 years. J Urol 2000; 164: 101105
  • 5
    Mann D, Reynolds K, Smith D, Muntner P. Trends in statin use and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels among US adults: impact of the 2001 National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines. Ann Pharmacother 2008; 42: 12081215
  • 6
    Jain MK, Ridker PM. Anti-inflammatory effects of statins: clinical evidence and basic mechanisms. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2005; 4: 977987
  • 7
    Carlberg M, Dricu A, Blegen H et al. Mevalonic acid is limiting for N-linked glycosylation and translocation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor to the cell surface. Evidence for a new link between 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a reductase and cell growth. J Biol Chem 1996; 271: 1745317462
  • 8
    Wong WW, Dimitroulakos J, Minden MD, Penn LZ. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and the malignant cell: the statin family of drugs as triggers of tumor-specific apoptosis. Leukemia 2002; 16: 508519
  • 9
    Dulak J, Jozkowicz A. Anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of statins: relevance to anti-cancer therapy. Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2005; 5: 579594
  • 10
    Koul HK, Kumar B, Koul S et al. The role of inflammation and infection in prostate cancer: importance in prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Drugs Today (Barc) 2010; 46: 929943
  • 11
    Jackson SM, Ericsson J, Edwards PA. Signaling molecules derived from the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. Subcell Biochem 1997; 28: 121
  • 12
    Benitah SA, Espina C, Valerón PF, Lacal JC. Rho GTPases in human carcinogenesis: a tale of excess. Clin Trans Oncol 2003; 5: 7078
  • 13
    Dillard PR, Lin MF, Khan SA. Androgen-independent prostate cancer cells acquire the complete steroidogenic potential of synthesizing testosterone from cholesterol. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2008; 295: 115120
  • 14
    Forrester JS, Libby P. The inflammation hypothesis and its potential relevance to statin therapy. Am J Cardiol 2007; 99: 732738
  • 15
    Rosenson RS. Pluripotential mechanisms of cardioprotection with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor therapy. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2001; 1: 411420
  • 16
    Yasui Y, Suzuki R, Miyamoto S et al. A lipophilic statin, pitavastatin, suppresses inflammation-associated mouse colon carcinogenesis. Int J Cancer 2007; 121: 23312339
  • 17
    Hamilton RJ, Freedland SJ. Rationale for statins in the chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Curr Urol Rep 2008; 9: 189196
  • 18
    Boudreau DM, Yu O, Johnson J. Statin use and cancer risk: a comprehensive review. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2010; 9: 603621
  • 19
    Bonovas S, Filioussi K, Sitaras NM. Statin use and the risk of prostate cancer: a metaanalysis of 6 randomized clinical trials and 13 observational studies. Int J Cancer 2008; 123: 899904
  • 20
    Roehl KA, Han M, Ramos CG, Antenor JA, Catalona WJ. Cancer progression and survival rates following anatomical radical retropubic prostatectomy in 3,478 consecutive patients: long-term results. J Urol 2004; 172: 910914
  • 21
    Ku JH, Jeong CW, Park YH, Cho MC, Kwak C, Kim HH. Relationship of statins to clinical presentation and biochemical outcomes after radical prostatectomy in Korean patients. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2011; 14: 6368
  • 22
    Krane LS, Kaul SA, Stricker HJ, Peabody JO, Menon M, Agarwal PK. Men presenting for radical prostatectomy on preoperative statin therapy have reduced serum prostate specific antigen. J Urol 2010; 183: 118124
  • 23
    Mondul AM, Han M, Humphreys EB, Meinhold CL, Walsh PC, Platz EA. Association of statin use with pathological tumor characteristics and prostate cancer recurrence after surgery. J Urol 2011; 185: 12681273
  • 24
    Hamilton RJ, Banez LL, Aronson WJ et al. Statin medication use and the risk of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy: results from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) Database. Cancer 2010; 116: 33893398
  • 25
    Soto DE, Daignault S, Sandler HM, Ray ME. No effect of statins on biochemical outcomes after radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Urology 2009; 73: 158162
  • 26
    Ritch CR, Hruby G, Badani KK, Benson MC, McKiernan JM. Effect of statin use on biochemical outcome following radical prostatectomy. BJU Int 2011; 108: E211216
  • 27
    Gutt R, Tonlaar N, Kunnavakkam R, Karrison T, Weichselbaum RR, Liauw SL. Statin use and risk of prostate cancer recurrence in men treated with radiation therapy. J Clin Oncol 2010; 28: 26532659
  • 28
    Kollmeier MA, Katz MS, Mak K et al. Improved biochemical outcomes with statin use in patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2011; 79: 713718
  • 29
    Moyad MA, Merrick GS, Butler WM et al. Statins, especially atorvastatin, may improve survival following brachytherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Urol Nurs 2006; 26: 298303
  • 30
    Li HY, Appelbaum FR, Willman CL, Zager RA, Banker DE. Cholesterol-modulating agents kill acute myeloid leukemia cells and sensitize them to therapeutics by blocking adaptive cholesterol responses. Blood 2003; 101: 36283634