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Keywords:

  • Type 2 diabetes;
  • Fructose;
  • Glucose;
  • Lipids;
  • Lipoproteins;
  • Apolipoproteins

The metabolic effects of fructose incorporated in the normal diets of 13 poorly controlled, Type 2 diabetic patients were studied in a 6-month, randomized, crossover study. Patients used 60 g day−1 of crystalline fructose in divided amounts as part of their isocaloric (1400–3900 kcal), weight-maintaining diet. During fructose supplementation, the distribution of carbohydrate-derived calories was 35 % complex and 15 % simple, the latter solely from fructose. This was compared with the patients' values on their usual diabetic diet (carbohydrate 50 % (mostly complex), fat 38 %, and protein 12 %). After 6 months of taking fructose, fasting serum glucose decreased from 12.6 ± 1.1 (± SE) to 9.8 ± 1.3 mmol I−1 (p < 0.02), while it was unchanged on normal diet (11.0 ± 0.1 vs 11.6 ± 0.9 mmol I−1, NS). Glycosylated haemoglobin was also reduced from 11.3 ± 0.4 to 9.9 ± 0.5 % (p < 0.05) on fructose, but unchanged on the control diet (10.4 ± 0.7 vs 11.2 ± 0.7 %, NS). No significant long-term deleterious changes were observed in the fasting serum lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins A-1 and B-100. Fructose was well tolerated without significant effects on body weight, or lactic acid and uric acid levels.