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Aggregation of features of the metabolic syndrome is associated with increased prevalence of chronic complications in Type 2 diabetes



Aims  To investigate the association of features of the metabolic syndrome with the prevalence of chronic complications.

Methods  A cross-sectional study was conducted with 548 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in the presence of at least two of the following: hypertension, dyslipidaemia, obesity, and microalbuminuria.

Results  Patients with the metabolic syndrome (85%) had a higher prevalence of peripheral vascular disease (PVD) (35% vs. 18%), retinopathy (44% vs. 20%), distal sensory neuropathy (DSN) (44% vs. 24%), micro- and macroalbuminuria (38% vs. 28%) and coronary artery disease (CAD) (53% vs. 36%). The more metabolic syndrome features (none/one, two, three or four), the higher the proportion of diabetes complications: PVD 18%, 31%, 37% and 38%; stroke 1.0%, 4.5%, 5.9% and 11.3%; retinopathy 20%, 38%, 42% and 64%; DSN 24%, 32%, 49% and 57%; micro- and macroalbuminuria 28%, 36% and 41%; and CAD 36%, 44%, 52% and 60% (P < 0.05).

Conclusions  The metabolic syndrome and the aggregation of its components were significantly associated with macro- and microvascular complications in Type 2 DM patients.