Parental age at delivery, birth order, birth weight and gestational age are associated with the risk of childhood Type 1 diabetes: a UK regional retrospective cohort study
Article first published online: 19 JAN 2005
Volume 22, Issue 2, pages 200–206, February 2005
How to Cite
Cardwell, C. R., Carson, D. J. and Patterson, C. C. (2005), Parental age at delivery, birth order, birth weight and gestational age are associated with the risk of childhood Type 1 diabetes: a UK regional retrospective cohort study. Diabetic Medicine, 22: 200–206. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2005.01369.x
- Issue published online: 19 JAN 2005
- Article first published online: 19 JAN 2005
- Accepted 2 February 2004
- birth order;
- birth weight;
- maternal age;
- paternal age;
- Type 1 diabetes
Aims To investigate perinatal risk factors for childhood Type 1 diabetes in a UK population cohort.
Methods Perinatal data have been routinely recorded in Northern Ireland for all births in the period 1971–86 (n = 447 663). Diabetes status at the age of 15 years was ascertained in this cohort by identifying 991 children from 1079 registered with Type 1 diabetes diagnosed from 1971 to 2001 and date of birth in the period 1971–86.
Results Increased Type 1 diabetes risk was associated with higher maternal age, paternal age, birth weight and birth weight for gestational and lower gestational age. After adjustment for maternal age, the association between Type 1 diabetes and paternal age remained significant [relative risk (RR) = 1.52 (1.10, 2.09) comparing father's age 35 years or more to less than 25 years] but not vice versa [RR = 1.11 (0.80, 1.54) comparing mother's age 35 years or more to less than 25 years]. Increased birth order was associated with a significant decrease in the risk of Type 1 diabetes [adjusted RR = 0.75 (0.62, 0.90) comparing birth order three or more with firstborn], but this only became apparent when adjustment was made for maternal age. Furthermore this association with birth order was significant only for diabetes diagnosed under the age of 5 years.
Conclusions Our analysis demonstrates, for the first time in a UK regional cohort setting, that maternal age and paternal age at delivery, birth order, birth weight and gestational age are significantly associated with Type 1 diabetes risk.