Aims Intrauterine exposure to diabetes is a significant determinant of the development of obesity and early onset of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in the offspring. Both conditions are characterized by insulin resistance and the latter is associated with reduced membrane arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids. Hence, we investigated if the membrane arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids are depressed in the cord blood of babies born to women with gestational diabetes.
Methods Cord (fetal) and maternal blood were obtained at delivery from control subjects (n = 33) and women with gestational diabetes (n = 40) and analysed for plasma triglycerides and cholinephosphoglycerides, and erythrocyte choline- and ethanolaminephosphoglycerides fatty acids.
Results Babies of gestational diabetic mothers had reduced docosahexaenoic acid in the plasma (5.9 ± 1.4 vs. 7.1 ± 2.0, P < 0.01) and erythrocyte (4.0 ± 2.2 vs. 5.4 ± 2.9, P < 0.05) cholinephosphoglycerides. Moreover, the total omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids of the erythrocyte cholinephosphoglycerides were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in these babies. A similar trend was observed in plasma triglycerides and erythrocyte ethanolaminephosphoglycerides. The maternal plasma triglycerides and erythrocyte ethanolaminephosphoglycerides fatty acids profile were not different between the two groups. However, there was a reduction in arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids in the erythrocyte cholinephosphoglycerides of the gestational diabetic women.
Conclusion The altered plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids in the cord blood of babies born to women with gestational diabetes suggests a perturbation in the maternal-fetal nutrient transport and/or fetal lipid metabolism.