• 1
    Mortensen HB, Hougaard P. Comparison of metabolic control in a cross-sectional study of 2873 children and adolescents with IDDM from 18 countries. Diabetes Care 1997; 20: 714720.
  • 2
    Scottish Study Group for the Care of Diabetes in the Young. Factors influencing glycemic control in young people with type 1 diabetes in Scotland. Diabetes Care 2001; 24: 239244.
  • 3
    Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. Effect of intensive diabetes treatment on the development and progression of long-term complications in adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. J Pediatrics 1994; 125: 177188.
  • 4
    Wills CJ, Scott A, Swift PGF, Davies MJ, Mackie ADR, Mansell P. Retrospective review of outcomes in young adults with type 1 diabetes. Br Med J, 2003; 327: 260261.
  • 5
    Mortensen HB. Insulin management and metabolic control of Type 1 diabetes mellitus in childhood and adolescence in 18 countries. Diabetic Med 1998; 15: 752759.
  • 6
    Mortensen HB, Villumsen J, Volund A, Petersen KE, Nerup J. Relationship between insulin injection regimen and metabolic control in young Danish Type 1 diabetic patients. Diabetic Med 1992; 9: 834839.
  • 7
    International Society of Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes. ISPAD consensus guidelines. 1995. Available from: (accessed 7 June 2005).
  • 8
    National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Type 1 diabetes in children and young people. London: National Institute for Clinical Excellence, 2004.
  • 9
    Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Management of Diabetes – a national clinical guideline (SIGN 55). Edinburgh: SIGN Executive, 2001.
  • 10
    Hanestad BR, Albrektsen G. The effects of participation in a support group on self-asessed quality of life in people with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Prac, 1993; 19: 163173.
  • 11
    Wyscocki T, Harris MA, Greco P, Harvey LM, McDonnell K, Elder Oanda CL et al. Social validity of support group and behavior therapy interventions for families of adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Pediatric Psychol 1997; 22: 635649.
  • 12
    Hampson SE, Skinner TC, Hart J, Storey L, Gage H, Foxcroft D et al. Behavioural interventions for adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2000; 23: 14161422.
  • 13
    Home PD. Intensive insulin therapy in clinical practice. Diabetologia 1997; 40: S83S87.
  • 14
    Janz NK, Becker MH, Hartman PE. Contingency contracting to enhance patient compliance: a review. Patient Education Counseling 1984; 5: 165178.
  • 15
    Cohen S. Psychosocial models of the role of social support in the etiology of physical disease. Health Psychol 1988; 7: 269297.
  • 16
    Bandura A. Social cognitive theory. Ann Child Dev 1989; 6: 160.
  • 17
    Bandura A. Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behaviour change. Psychol Rev 1977; 84: 191215.
  • 18
    Bryan JF, Locke EA. Goal setting as a means of increasing motivation. J Appl Psychol 1967; 51: 274277.
  • 19
    Cobb S. Social support as a moderator of life stress. Psychosomatic Med 2002; 38: 300314.
  • 20
    Cohen S, Wills TA. Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychol Bull 1985; 98: 310357.
  • 21
    Franklin V, Waller A, Pagliari C, Greene S. ‘Sweet talk’: text messaging support for intensive insulin therapy for young people with diabetes. Diabetes Technol Therapeutics 2003; 5: 991996.
  • 22
    Grossman HY, Brink S, Hauser S. Self-efficacy in adolescent girls and boys with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1987; 10: 324329.
  • 23
    Beeney L, Dunn S, Welch G. Measurement of diabetes knowledge — the development of the DKN scales. In: Bradley, C, ed. Handbook of Psychology and Diabetes. New York: Psychology Press, 1994: 159190.
  • 24
    La Greca A, Auslander WF, Greco P, Spetter D, Fisher EB, Santiago JV. I get by with a little help from my family and friends: adolescents support for diabetes care. J Pediatric Psychol 1995; 20: 449476.
  • 25
    The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The relationship of glycemic exposure (HbA1c) to the risk of development and progression of retinopathy in the Diabetes Control and Complication Trial. Diabetes 1995; 44: 968983.
  • 26
    Dorchy H. Dorchy's recipes — explaining the ‘intriguing efficacy of Belgian conventional therapy’. Diabetes Care 1994; 17: 458460.
  • 27
    Hecker W, Vogel C, Roesel M, Ludwig KH, Jourdan C, Holl RW. Gender- and age-specific long-term effects of the DCCT in the management of children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Germany. Diabetes Suppl 2004; 1: A422.
  • 28
    The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Retinopathy and nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes four years after a trial of intensive therapy. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 381389.
  • 29
    Grey M, Boland EA, Davidson M, Li J, Tamborlane WV. Coping skills training for youth with diabetes mellitus has long-lasting effects on metabolic control and quality of life. J Pediatrics 2000; 137: 107113.
  • 30
    Bode B, Steed R, Davidson P. Reduction in severe hypoglycaemia with long-term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in Type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1996; 19: 324327.
  • 31
    Steindel BS, Roe TR, Costin G, Carlson M, Kaufman FR. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in children and adolescents with chronic poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Prac 1995; 27: 199204.
  • 32
    Boulton AJM, Knight G, Drury J, Ward J. Diabetic ketoacidosis associated with outpatient treatment using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Postgrad Med J 1983; 59: 438439.
  • 33
    Knight G, Jennings A, Boulton AJM, Tomlinson S, Ward J. Severe hypokalaemia and ketoacidosis during routine treatment with an insulin pump. Br Med J 1985; 291: 371372.
  • 34
    Nordfeldt S, Ludvigsson J. Severe hypoglycaemia in children with IDDM. Diabetes Care 1997; 20: 497503.
  • 35
    Weissberg-Benchell J, Antisdel-Lomaglio J, Seshadri R. Insulin pump therapy, a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care, 2003; 26: 10791087.
  • 36
    Northam EA, Todd S, Cameron FJ. Interventions to promote optimal health outcomes in children with Type 1 diabetes—are they effective? Diabet Med 2006; 23: 113121.
  • 37
    McKay HG, Feil EG, Glasgow RE, Brown JE. Feasibility and use of an internet support service for diabetes self-management. Diabetes Educator 2003; 24: 174179.
  • 38
    Delamater AM, Jacobson AM, Anderson B, Cox D, Fisher L, Lustman P. et al. Psychosocial therapies in diabetes — report of the psychosocial therapies working group. Diabetes Care 2001; 24: 12861292.
  • 39
    Piette JD. Enhancing support via interactive technologies. Curr Diabetes Rep 2002; 2: 160165.
  • 40
    Pagliari C, Gregor P, Sloan D, McGillivray S, Sullivan F, Kahan J et al. Literature Review and Conceptual Map of the Area of E-Health. London: NHS Service Development and Reorganisation Programme, 2005. Available from: (accessed 11 April 2005).