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Keywords:

  • ADOPT;
  • haemoglobin A1c;
  • phenotype;
  • race;
  • Type 2 diabetes

Abstract

Aims  To examine baseline characteristics of patients recruited into ADOPT, a multinational trial comparing three oral glucose-lowering monotherapies.

Methods  Between April 2000 and June 2002, 4360 patients aged 30–75 years with Type 2 diabetes diagnosed for < 3 years and remaining on diet therapy alone with fasting plasma glucose levels (FPG) between 7.0 and 10.0 mmol/l were enrolled by 488 North American and European centres. Medical histories, anthropometric data and laboratory measurements were determined using common methodologies.

Results  The mean (sd) age of the patients was 57 (10) years, body mass index 32.2 (6.4) kg/m2, HbA1c 7.4 (0.9)%; 58% were male, 88% Caucasian and 15% smoked. North American Caucasians (NAC) were younger, more obese, and more insulin resistant than European Caucasians (EUC), but had better pancreatic B-cell function. NAC had lower total, low-density lipoprotein- and high-density liporpotein-cholesterol concentrations with higher triglyceride concentrations and were more often on lipid-lowering treatment. They had lower blood pressure levels but were equally likely to be on antihypertensive treatment. Metabolic syndrome was more frequent and microalbuminuria less frequent in NAC. Within North America, NAC had lower HbA1c concentrations than Blacks, Hispanics and Asians despite similar or higher FPG and 30-min postchallenge glucose concentrations.

Conclusions  Caucasian North American and European ADOPT patients differ with respect to adiposity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome prevalence. North American Blacks, Hispanics and Asians had lower HbA1c concentrations than NAC despite similar or higher glucose concentrations. These phenotypic differences may influence the progression of Type 2 diabetes and the response to initial oral glucose-lowering monotherapy.