Aims To determine whether adiponectin levels are higher in youth with Type 1 diabetes than in non-diabetic controls, and explore potential determinants for this difference.
Methods Data are from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Case-Control Study. A total of 440 youth with Type 1 diabetes and 191 non-diabetic healthy controls age 10–22 years of non-Hispanic White (NHW), African-American (AA) and Hispanic (H) origin were included in this analysis. Mean adiponectin levels were compared between persons with diabetes and controls within each racial/ethnic group, sequentially adjusting for the following variables: demographic (age, sex, Tanner stage), kidney function (albumin: creatinin ratio: ACR), obesity (body mass index: BMI; waist circumference), behavioral (percent calories from fat, physical activity), and glucose control (hemoglobin A1c: HbA1c).
Results Mean adiponectin levels, adjusted for age, sex and Tanner stage, were higher in persons with Type 1 diabetes than in control subjects, among NHW (17.6 vs 13.0 µg/ml, P < 0.001) and H (17.2 vs 13.0, P = 0.01), and slightly higher but not significantly so among AA (14.5 vs 12.6, P = 0.1). The differences persisted after additionally adjusting for differences in ACR, BMI and waist circumference. We found a positive relationship between adiponectin and HbA1c in youth with Type 1 diabetes, even after adjustment for age, sex and race/ethnicity.
Conclusions Adiponectin is higher in an ethnically diverse group of youth with Type 1 diabetes than in control subjects. The relationship between glycemic control and adiponectin in Type 1 diabetes requires further exploration.