Diabetes and anxiety in US adults: findings from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

Authors

  • C. Li,

    1. Division of Adult and Community Health and Division of Diabetes Translation, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
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  • L. Barker,

    1. Division of Adult and Community Health and Division of Diabetes Translation, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
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  • E. S. Ford,

    1. Division of Adult and Community Health and Division of Diabetes Translation, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
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  • X. Zhang,

    1. Division of Adult and Community Health and Division of Diabetes Translation, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
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  • T. W. Strine,

    1. Division of Adult and Community Health and Division of Diabetes Translation, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
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  • A. H. Mokdad

    1. Division of Adult and Community Health and Division of Diabetes Translation, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
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  • Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

: Chao-Yang Li, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, MS K66, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA. E-mail: cli@cdc.gov

Abstract

Aims  Anxiety disorders may cause substantial impairment in patient functioning and well-being. Little is known about the relationship between diabetes and anxiety. We estimated the prevalence of lifetime diagnosis of anxiety in adults aged ≥ 18 years with and without diabetes in the USA.

Methods  We analysed data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (total, N = 201 575; 20 142 with diabetes; 39.4% men, 77.9% non-Hispanic Whites, 8.1% non-Hispanic Blacks and 7.7% Hispanics; mean age 52.4 years). Diabetes and lifetime diagnosis of anxiety were self-reported. A multivariable log–binomial model was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) of anxiety based on diabetes status.

Results  The overall age-adjusted prevalence of lifetime diagnosis of anxiety was 19.5 and 10.9% in people with and without diabetes, respectively. After adjustment for educational level, marital status, employment status, current smoking, leisure-time physical activity and body mass index, people with diabetes had a 20% higher prevalence of lifetime diagnosis of anxiety than those without (PR 1.20; 95% CI 1.12, 1.30). There were no significant differences in the PR by gender (P = 0.06). However, the ratios differed significantly by age (P = 0.04) and by race/ethnicity (P < 0.01), indicating that people aged 18−29 years (PR 1.70; 95% CI 1.19, 2.43) and Hispanics (PR 1.69; 95% CI 1.33, 2.15) had a higher ratio than their counterparts.

Conclusion  Diabetes was significantly associated with anxiety in adults in this large population-based sample, particularly in Hispanics and young adults.

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