• 1
    NICE. Technology Appraisal Guidance 60: Guidance on the Use of Patient-Education Models for Diabetes. London: National Institute for Clinical Excellence, April 2003.
  • 2
    Department of Health. National Service Framework for Diabetes. London: Department of Health, 2001. Available at Last accessed 1 May 2006.
  • 3
    Lorig K, Lubeck D, Kraines RG, Seleznick M, Holman HR. Outcomes of self-help education for patients with arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1985; 28: 680685.
  • 4
    Lorig KR, Sobel DS, Stewart AL, Brown BW, Bandura A, Ritter P et al . Evidence suggesting that a chronic disease self-management program can improve health status while reducing hospitalization: a randomized trial. Med Care 1999; 37: 514.
  • 5
    Department of Health. The Expert Patient. London: Department of Health, 2001. Available at Last accessed 1 May 2006.
  • 6
    Bury M, Newbould J, Taylor D. A Rapid Review of the Current State of Knowledge Regarding Lay-Led Self-Management of Chronic Illness. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2005. Available at Last accessed 1 May 2006.
  • 7
    Griffiths C, Foster G, Eldridge S, Taylor S. How effective are expert patient (lay-led) education programmes for chronic disease? Br Med J 2007; 334: 12541256.
  • 8
    Barlow JH, Turner AP, Wright CC. A randomized controlled study of the Arthritis Self-management Programme in the UK. Health Educ Res 2000; 15: 665680.
  • 9
    Dongbo F, Hua F, McGowan P, Yi-e S, Lizhen Z, Huiqin Y et al . Implementation and quantitative evaluation of chronic disease self-management programme in Shanghau, China: randomized controlled trial. Bull World Health Organ 2003; 81: 174182.
  • 10
    Barlow JH, Wright CC, Turner AP, Bancroft V. A 12-month follow-up study of self-management training for people with chronic disease: are changes maintained over time? Br J Health Psychol 2005; 10: 589599.
  • 11
    Griffiths C, Motlib J, Azad A, Ramsay J, Eldridge S, Feder G et al . Randomised controlled trial of a lay-led self-management programme for Bangladeshi patients with chronic disease. Br J Gen Pract 2005; 55: 831837.
  • 12
    Kennedy A, Reeves D, Bower P, Lee V, Middleton E, Richardson G et al . The effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a national lay-led self-care support programme for patients with long-term conditions: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. J Epidemiol Community Health 2007; 61: 254261.
  • 13
    Newman S, Steed L, Mulligan K. Self-management interventions for chronic illness. Lancet 2004; 364: 15231537.
  • 14
    Lorig K, Feigenbaum P, Regan C, Ung E, Chestain RL, Holman HR. A comparison of lay-taught and professional-taught arthritis self-management courses. J Rheumtol 1986; 13: 763767.
  • 15
    Cohen JL, Santer SV, De Vellis RF, DeVellis BM. Evaluation of arthritis self-management courses led by lay persons and by professionals. Arthritis Rheum. 1986; 29: 388393.
  • 16
    Baksi AK, Al-Mrayat M, Hogan D, Thomas Z, Whittingstall E, Wilson P. Training programme for peer advisors in diabetes—are they the expert patients in diabetes? Pract Diabetes Int 2005; 22: 119124.
  • 17
    Department of Health and Diabetes UK. Structured Patient Education in Diabetes—Report from the Patient Education Working Party. London: Department of Health and Diabetes UK, 2005.
  • 18
    Graf Pad Software. QuickCalcs online calculators for Scientists, 2002–2005. Available at Last accessed 1 May 2006.
  • 19
    American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. AACE diabetes guidelines, knowledge evaluation forms. Endocr Pract 2002; 8: 7177.
  • 20
    Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Centre. Survey instruments. 2002. Available at Last accessed 1 May 2006.
  • 21
    Fitzgerald JT, Davis WK, Connell CM, Hess GE, Funnell MM, Hiss RG. Development and validation of the diabetes care profile. Eval Health Prof 1996; 19: 209231.
  • 22
    Anderson RM, Fitzgerald JT, Wisdom K, Davis WK, Hiss RG. A comparison of global vs. disease-specific quality-of-life measures with patients having non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1997; 20: 299305.
  • 23
    Deakin T, McShane CE, Cade JE, Williams RDRR. Group based training for self-management strategies in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; 2, article no.: CD003417.
  • 24
    Sigurdarottir AK, Jonsdottir H, Benediktsson. Outcomes of educational interventions in Type 2 diabetes: WEKA data-mining analysis. Patient Educ Couns 2007; 67: 2131.
  • 25
    Norris SL, Choudhury FM, Van hot K, Horsley T, Brownstein JN, Zhang X et al . Effectiveness of community health workers in the care of persons with diabetes. Diabet Med 2006; 23: 544556.