Psychometric validation and use of a novel diabetes in-patient treatment satisfaction questionnaire


Prof. Mike Sampson, Elsie Bertram Diabetes Centre, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital NHS Trust, Norwich, UK NR4 7UY. E-mail:


Aims  To develop the first psychometrically validated Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for in-patients (DTSQ-IP) and examine determinants of in-patient diabetes treatment satisfaction.

Methods  We studied 366 in-patients with insulin-treated diabetes at a single UK centre. We developed a 19-item DTSQ-IP to assess in-patient diabetes treatment satisfaction, and collected data on in-patient length of stay (LOS) and in-patient care at the same time.

Results  Psychometric analyses including Principal Components Analysis and Cronbach’s α reliability coefficient showed that a single satisfaction score (excluding two items scored individually) can be computed for the entire DTSQ-IP, indicating very good internal consistency reliability (0.92). The DTSQ-IP detected considerable dissatisfaction with meal choice and timing (13.7% of in-patients would never have chosen similar meals at home), and with in-patient hypoglycaemia (35.3% felt that their blood glucose was too low most of the time). In-patients on surgical wards, women, and those long established on insulin were significantly more dissatisfied, particularly with competence of hospital staff. Patients who administered their own insulin were not significantly less dissatisfied overall, but were so with the choice of meals (P = 0.005). Multiple regression analysis produced a model accounting for 8.2% of variability in DTSQ-IP (r = 0.29; P = 0.0058) and 21.7% of variability in LOS (r = 0.46; P = 0.0001).

Conclusions  The DTSQ-IP is a novel, psychometrically validated and sensitive tool that adds to the DTSQ portfolio. The DTSQ-IP facilitates efforts to assess and improve treatment satisfaction in in-patients with diabetes.