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Autonomic imbalance: prophet of doom or scope for hope?
Article first published online: 16 MAY 2011
© 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK
Volume 28, Issue 6, pages 643–651, June 2011
How to Cite
Vinik, A. I., Maser, R. E. and Ziegler, D. (2011), Autonomic imbalance: prophet of doom or scope for hope?. Diabetic Medicine, 28: 643–651. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03184.x
- Issue published online: 16 MAY 2011
- Article first published online: 16 MAY 2011
- Accepted manuscript online: 3 NOV 2010 07:20PM EST
Diabet. Med. 28, 643–651 (2011)
It has long been recognized that cardiac autonomic neuropathy increases morbidity and mortality in diabetes and may have greater predictive power than traditional risk factors for cardiovascular events. Significant morbidity and mortality can now be attributable to autonomic imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system regulation of cardiovascular function. New and emerging syndromes include orthostatic tachycardia, orthostatic bradycardia and an inability to use heart rate as a guide to exercise intensity because of the resting tachycardia. Recent studies have shown that autonomic imbalance may be a predictor of risk of sudden death with intensification of glycaemic control. This review examines an association of autonomic dysregulation and the role of inflammatory cytokines and adipocytokines that promote cardiovascular risk. In addition, conditions of autonomic imbalance associated with cardiovascular risk are discussed. Potential treatment for restoration of autonomic balance is outlined.