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Keywords:

  • fulminant Type 1 diabetes;
  • influenza;
  • thrombocytopenia;
  • TLR7;
  • vaccination

Diabet. Med. 29, 88–89 (2012)

Abstract

Background  Fulminant Type 1 diabetes was originally reported as idiopathic Type 1 diabetes. Involvement of viral infections in the pathogenesis of fulminant T1D has been suggested, but the development of fulminant Type 1 diabetes after influenza vaccination has not been reported.

Case Report  We report a case of fulminant Type 1 diabetes with thrombocytopenia following influenza vaccination. A 54-year-old man was admitted to hospital with hyperglycaemia and diabetic ketosis. Seven days before admission, he received a seasonal influenza vaccine for the prevention of influenza infection. On admission, blood glucose was 29 mmol/L and HbA1c 40 mmol/mol (5.9%). Fasting and 2-h C-peptide immunoreactivity were <0.0333 nmol/L and 0.0999 nmol/L, respectively. Anti-GAD and anti-IA-2 antibodies were negative, so no autoimmunity seemed to participate in the etiology. ELISPOT assay also showed no association with T cell-mediated autoimmunity. HLA genotypes were consistent with susceptibility to fulminant Type 1 diabetes. After the abrupt onset of diabetes, he showed mild thrombocytopenia, which has been observed for approximately 5 years after diabetes development.

Conclusion  This is the first description of fulminant Type 1 diabetes after influenza vaccination. Our observation raises the possibility that influenza vaccination might trigger this condition via the TLR7 pathway.