• 1
    Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hamalainen H, Ilanne-Parikka P et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 13431350.
  • 2
    Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 393403.
  • 3
    Ruge T, Nystrom L, Lindahl B, Hallmans G, Norberg M, Weinehall L et al. Recruiting high-risk individuals to a diabetes prevention program: how hard can it be? Diabetes Care 2007; 30: e61.
  • 4
    Eddy DM, Schlessinger L, Kahn R. Clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of strategies for managing people at high risk for diabetes. Ann Intern Med 2005; 143: 251264.
  • 5
    Ko GT, Chan JC, Woo J, Lau E, Yeung VT, Chow CC et al. The reproducibility and usefulness of the oral glucose tolerance test in screening for diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors. Ann Clin Biochem 1998; 35: 6267.
  • 6
    Wilson JMG, Jungner G. Principles and Practice of Screening for Disease. Public Health Paper Number 34. Geneva: WHO, 1968.
  • 7
    Herman WH, Hoerger TJ, Brandle M, Hicks K, Sorensen S, Zhang P et al. The cost-effectiveness of lifestyle modification or metformin in preventing type 2 diabetes in adults with impaired glucose tolerance. Annals of Internal Medicine 2005; 142: 323332.
  • 8
    Palmer AJ, Roze S, Valentine WJ, Spinas GA, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ. Intensive lifestyle changes or metformin in patients with impaired glucose tolerance: modeling the long-term health economic implications of the diabetes prevention program in Australia, France, Germany, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Clin Ther 2004; 26: 304321.
  • 9
    Gillies CL, Lambert PC, Abrams KR, Sutton AJ, Cooper NJ, Hsu RT et al. Different strategies for screening and prevention of type 2 diabetes in adults: cost effectiveness analysis. BMJ 2008; 336: 11801185.
  • 10
    Hoerger TJ, Hicks KA, Sorensen SW, Herman WH, Ratner RE, Ackermann RT et al. Cost-effectiveness of screening for pre-diabetes among overweight and obese U.S. adults. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 28742879.
  • 11
    Harding AH, Griffin SJ, Wareham NJ. Population impact of strategies for identifying groups at high risk of type 2 diabetes. Prev Med 2006; 42: 364368.
  • 12
    Wareham NJ, Griffin SJ. Should we screen for type 2 diabetes? Evaluation against National Screening Committee criteria. BMJ 2001; 322: 986988.
  • 13
    UK National Screening Committee. Handbook for Vascular Risk Assessment, Risk Reduction and Risk Management. London: UK National Screening Committee and University of Leicester, 2008. Available at Last accessed 13 February 2012.
  • 14
    Department of Health. Putting Prevention First – Vascular Checks: Risk Assessment and Management. London: Department of Health, 2008.
  • 15
    Department of Health. Putting Prevention First: Vascular Checks Risk Assessment And Management – Impact Assessment. London: Department of Health, 2008.
  • 16
    Chamnan P, Simmons RK, Khaw KT, Wareham NJ, Griffin SJ. Estimating the population impact of screening strategies for identifying and treating people at high risk of cardiovascular disease: modelling study. BMJ 2010; 340: c1693.
  • 17
    Eborall HC, Griffin SJ, Prevost AT, Kinmonth AL, French DP, Sutton S. Psychological impact of screening for type 2 diabetes: controlled trial and comparative study embedded in the ADDITION (Cambridge) randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2007; 335: 486.
  • 18
    Paddison CA, Eborall HC, Sutton S, French DP, Vasconcelos J, Prevost AT et al. Are people with negative diabetes screening tests falsely reassured? Parallel group cohort study embedded in the ADDITION (Cambridge) randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2009; 339: b4535.
  • 19
    International Expert Committee report on the role of the A1C assay in the diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 13271334.
  • 20
    American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2010; 33: S62S69.
  • 21
    Sarwar N, Aspelund T, Eiriksdottir G, Gobin R, Seshasai SR, Forouhi NG et al. Markers of dysglycaemia and risk of coronary heart disease in people without diabetes: Reykjavik prospective study and systematic review. PLoS Med 2010; 7: e1000278.
  • 22
    Preiss D, Khunti K, Sattar N. Combined cardiovascular and diabetes risk assessment in primary care. Diabet Med 2011; 28: 1922.
  • 23
    Day N, Oakes S, Luben R, Khaw KT, Bingham S, Welch A et al. EPIC-Norfolk: study design and characteristics of the cohort. European Prospective Investigation of Cancer. Br J Cancer 1999; 80: 95103.
  • 24
    Chamnan P, Simmons RK, Forouhi NG, Luben RN, Khaw KT, Wareham NJ et al. Incidence of type 2 diabetes using proposed HbA1c diagnostic criteria in the European prospective investigation of cancer-Norfolk cohort: implications for preventive strategies. Diabetes Care 2011; 34: 950956.
  • 25
    Harding AH, Day NE, Khaw KT, Bingham S, Luben R, Welsh A et al. Dietary fat and the risk of clinical type 2 diabetes: the European prospective investigation of Cancer-Norfolk study. Am J Epidemiol 2004; 159: 7382.
  • 26
    Griffin SJ, Little PS, Hales CN, Kinmonth AL, Wareham NJ. Diabetes risk score: towards earlier detection of type 2 diabetes in general practice. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2000; 16: 164171.
  • 27
    Spijkerman AM, Yuyun MF, Griffin SJ, Dekker JM, Nijpels G, Wareham NJ. The performance of a risk score as a screening test for undiagnosed hyperglycemia in ethnic minority groups: data from the 1999 health survey for England. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 116122.
  • 28
    Rahman M, Simmons RK, Harding AH, Wareham NJ, Griffin SJ. A simple risk score identifies individuals at high risk of developing Type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study. Fam Pract 2008; 25: 191196.
  • 29
    Spijkerman A, Griffin S, Dekker J, Nijpels G, Wareham NJ. What is the risk of mortality for people who are screen positive in a diabetes screening programme but who do not have diabetes on biochemical testing? Diabetes screening programmes from a public health perspective. J Med Screen 2002; 9: 187190.
  • 30
    Lindstrom J, Tuomilehto J. The diabetes risk score: a practical tool to predict type 2 diabetes risk. Diabetes Care 2003; 26: 725731.
  • 31
    Franciosi M, De Berardis G, Rossi MC, Sacco M, Belfiglio M, Pellegrini F et al. Use of the diabetes risk score for opportunistic screening of undiagnosed diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance: the IGLOO (Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Long-Term Outcomes Observational) study. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 118794.
  • 32
    Rathmann W, Martin S, Haastert B, Icks A, Holle R, Lowel H et al. Performance of screening questionnaires and risk scores for undiagnosed diabetes: the KORA Survey 2000. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165: 436441.
  • 33
    Wareham NJ, Jakes RW, Rennie KL, Schuit J, Mitchell J, Hennings S et al. Validity and repeatability of a simple index derived from the short physical activity questionnaire used in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Public Health Nutr 2003; 6: 407413.
  • 34
    Khaw KT, Jakes R, Bingham S, Welch A, Luben R, Day N et al. Work and leisure time physical activity assessed using a simple, pragmatic, validated questionnaire and incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in men and women: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer in Norfolk prospective population study. Int J Epidemiol 2006; 35: 10341043.
  • 35
    Gemmell I, Heller RF, McElduff P, Payne K, Butler G, Edwards R et al. Population impact of stricter adherence to recommendations for pharmacological and lifestyle interventions over one year in patients with coronary heart disease. J Epidemiol Community Health 2005; 59: 10411046.
  • 36
    Office for National Statistics. Mid-2007 UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland Population Estimates. London: Office for National Statistics, 2008.
  • 37
    Kahn R, Alperin P, Eddy D, Borch-Johnsen K, Buse J, Feigelman J et al. Age at initiation and frequency of screening to detect type 2 diabetes: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Lancet 2010; 375: 136574.
  • 38
    National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Guide to the Methods of Technology Appraisal. London: NICE, 2008.
  • 39
    Jacobs-van der Bruggen MA, Bos G, Bemelmans WJ, Hoogenveen RT, Vijgen SM, Baan CA. Lifestyle interventions are cost-effective in people with different levels of diabetes risk: results from a modeling study. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 128134.
  • 40
    Goyder E, Carlisle J. National Evaluations of DHDS Diabetes Screening Pilot Programme: Interim Report to UK National Screening Committee. Sheffield: Public Health Section of ScHARR, 2006.
  • 41
    Engelgau MM. Trying to predict the future for people with diabetes: a tough but important task. Ann Intern Med 2005; 143: 301302.
  • 42
    Sargeant LA, Simmons RK, Barling RS, Butler R, Williams KM, Prevost AT et al. Who attends a UK diabetes screening programme? Findings from the ADDITION-Cambridge study. Diabet Med 2010; 27: 9951003.
  • 43
    Yeh HC, Duncan BB, Schmidt MI, Wang NY, Brancati FL. Smoking, smoking cessation, and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med 2010; 152: 1017.
  • 44
    Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C, Vinogradova Y, Robson J, Minhas R, Sheikh A et al. Predicting cardiovascular risk in England and Wales: prospective derivation and validation of QRISK2. BMJ 2008; 336: 14751482.
  • 45
    Nyholm M, Gullberg B, Merlo J, Lundqvist-Persson C, Rastam L, Lindblad U. The validity of obesity based on self-reported weight and height: Implications for population studies. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007; 15: 197208.
  • 46
    Knops-Dullens T, de Vries N, de Vries H. Reasons for non-attendance in cervical cancer screening programmes: an application of the Integrated Model for Behavioural Change. Eur J Cancer Prev 2007; 16: 436445.
  • 47
    Colagiuri S, Hussain Z, Zimmet P, Cameron A, Shaw J. Screening for type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose metabolism: the Australian experience. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 367371.
  • 48
    Wannamethee SG, Papacosta O, Whincup PH, Thomas MC, Carson C, Lawlor DA et al. The potential for a two-stage diabetes risk algorithm combining non-laboratory-based scores with subsequent routine non-fasting blood tests: results from prospective studies in older men and women. Diabet Med 2011; 28: 2330.