• 1
    Ryden L, Standl E, Bartnik M, Van den Berghe G, Betteridge J, de Boer MJ et al. Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases: executive summary. The Task Force on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Eur Heart J 2007; 28: 88136.
  • 2
    Norhammar A, Tenerz A, Nilsson G, Hamsten A, Efendic S, Ryden L et al. Glucose metabolism in patients with acute myocardial infarction and no previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus: a prospective study. Lancet 2002; 359: 21402144.
  • 3
    Okosieme OE, Peter R, Usman M, Bolusani H, Suruliram P, George L et al. Can admission and fasting glucose reliably identify undiagnosed diabetes in patients with acute coronary syndrome? Diabetes Care 2008; 31: 19551959.
  • 4
    Bartnik M, Ryden L, Ferrari R, Malmberg K, Pyorala K, Simoons M et al. The prevalence of abnormal glucose regulation in patients with coronary artery disease across Europe. The Euro Heart Survey on diabetes and the heart. Eur Heart J 2004; 25: 18801890.
  • 5
    Kosiborod M. Blood glucose and its prognostic implications in patients hospitalised with acute myocardial infarction. Diab Vasc Dis Res 2008; 5: 269275.
  • 6
    Ramachandran A, Chamukuttan S, Immaneni S, Shanmugam RM, Vishnu N, Viswanathan V et al. High incidence of glucose intolerance in Asian-Indian subjects with acute coronary syndrome. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 24922496.
  • 7
    Bartnik M, Ryden L, Malmberg K, Ohrvik J, Pyorala K, Standl E et al. Oral glucose tolerance test is needed for appropriate classification of glucose regulation in patients with coronary artery disease: a report from the Euro Heart Survey on Diabetes and the Heart. Heart 2007; 93: 7277.
  • 8
    Lenzen M, Ryden L, Ohrvik J, Bartnik M, Malmberg K, Scholte op Reimer W. Diabetes known or newly detected, but not impaired glucose regulation, has a negative influence on 1-year outcome in patients with coronary artery disease: a report from the Euro Heart Survey on diabetes and the heart. Eur Heart J 2006; 27: 29692974.
  • 9
    Anselmino M, Malmberg K, Ohrvik J, Ryden L. Evidence-based medication and revascularization: powerful tools in the management of patients with diabetes and coronary artery disease: a report from the Euro Heart Survey on diabetes and the heart. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2008; 15: 216223.
  • 10
    Anselmino M, Bartnik M, Malmberg K, Rydén L, on behalf of the Euro Heart Survey Investigators. Management of coronary artery disease in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Acute management reasonable but secondary prevention unacceptably poor: a report from the Euro Heart Survey on Diabetes and the heart. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2007; 14: 2836.
  • 11
    de Vegt F, Dekker JM, Jager A, Hienkens E, Kostense PJ, Stehouwer CDA et al. Relation of impaired fasting and postload glucose with incident Type 2 diabetes in a Dutch population. J Am Med Assoc 2001; 285: 21092113.
  • 12
    Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ. Defination,diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part1. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consulation. Diabet Med 1998; 15: 539553.
  • 13
    Van de Werf F, Bax J, Betriu A, Blomstrom-Lundqvist C, Crea F, Falk V et al. Management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with persistent ST-segment elevation: the Task Force on the Management of ST-Segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2008; 29: 29092945.
  • 14
    JBS 2. Joint British Societies’ guidelines on prevention of cardiovascular disease in clinical practice. Heart 2005; 91: 152.
  • 15
    NICE. Hyperglycaemia in Acute Coronary Syndrome. Clinical guidelines 130. 2011. Available at Last accessed 28 October 2011.
  • 16
    Hage C, Malmberg K, Rydén L, Wallander M. The impact of infarct type on the reliability of early oral glucose tolerance testing in patients with myocardial infarction. Int J Cardiol 2010; 145: 259260.
  • 17
    WHO. Use of Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) in the Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus. Abbreviated Report of a WHO Consultation. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2011: 125.
  • 18
    Selvin E, Steffes MW, Zhu H, Matsushita K, Wagenknecht L, Pankow J et al. Glycated hemoglobin, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk in nondiabetic adults. N Engl J Med 2010; 362: 800811.
  • 19
    Timmer JR, Hoekstra M, Nijsten MWN, van der Horst ICC, Ottervanger JP, Slingerland RJ et al. Prognostic value of admission glycosylated hemoglobin and glucose in nondiabetic patients with ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention/clinical perspective. Circulation 2011; 124: 704711.
  • 20
    International Expert Committee. Report on the role of the A1C assay in the diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 13271334.
  • 21
    Khaw K, Wareham N, Bingham S, Luben R, Welch A, Day N. Association of hemoglobin A1c with cardiovascular disease and mortality in adults: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer in Norfolk. Ann Intern Med 2004; 141: 413420.
  • 22
    Silverman RA, Thakker U, Ellman T, Wong I, Smith K, Ito K et al. Hemoglobin A1c as a screen for previously undiagnosed prediabetes and diabetes in an acute-care setting. Diabetes Care 2011; 34: 19081912.
  • 23
    Mozaffarian D, Marfisi R, Levantesi G, Silletta MG, Tavazzi L, Tognoni G et al. Incidence of new-onset diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in patients with recent myocardial infarction and the effect of clinical and lifestyle risk factors. Lancet 2007; 370: 667675.