Coeliac disease in Type 1 diabetes from 1990 to 2009: higher incidence in young children after longer diabetes duration

Authors

  • A. Pham-Short,

    1. Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead
    2. Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Sydney
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  • K. C. Donaghue,

    1. Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead
    2. Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Sydney
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  • G. Ambler,

    1. Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead
    2. Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Sydney
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  • A. K. Chan,

    1. Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead
    2. Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Sydney
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  • M. E. Craig

    1. Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead
    2. Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Sydney
    3. School of Women’s and Children’s Health, University of New South Wales, NSW, Australia
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Maria Craig, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia. E-mail: m.craig@unsw.edu.au

Abstract

Diabet. Med. 29, e286-e289 (2012)

Abstract

Aims  To determine the incidence of coeliac disease in young people with Type 1 diabetes and to examine the effect of age at diabetes onset and disease duration.

Methods  This was a clinic-based observational cohort study of 4379 people aged ≤ 18 years (49% male) between 1990 and 2009 from Sydney, Australia. Screening for coeliac disease was performed at diagnosis and 1–2 yearly using anti-endomysial and/or anti-tissue transglutaminase immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies. Coeliac disease was diagnosed by small bowel biopsy based on Marsh score ≥ III.

Results  Coeliac disease was confirmed by biopsy in 185; of these, 61 (33%) were endomysial or tissue transglutaminase IgA antibody-positive at diabetes diagnosis. Mean age at diabetes onset was 6.6 ± 4.0 vs. 8.4 ± 4.1 years in those without coeliac disease (P < 0.001). Mean incidence was 7.7 per 1000 person years (95% CI 6.6–8.9) over 20 years. Incidence was higher in children aged < 5 years at diabetes diagnosis (10.4 per 1000 person years) vs. ≥ 5 years (6.4 per 1000), incidence rate ratio 1.6 (95% CI 1.2–2.2, P = 0.002). Coeliac disease was diagnosed after 2, 5 and 10 years of diabetes in 45, 78 and 94% of cases, respectively. Median time to coeliac disease diagnosis was longer in children aged < 5 years at diabetes onset (3.3 years) compared with older children (0.7 years, P < 0.001).

Conclusions  Coeliac disease is common in young people with Type 1 diabetes; the risk is greatest with diabetes onset < 5 years, but after longer diabetes duration. Screening for coeliac disease should be performed at diabetes diagnosis and for at least 10 years in young children.

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