• 1
    Clark CM. Peer support in diabetes management – toward global application. Overview. Fam Pract2010; 27: Si3Si5.
  • 2
    Funnell MM. Peer-based behavioural strategies to improve chronic disease self-management and clinical outcomes: evidence, logistics, evaluation considerations and needs for future research. Fam Pract2010; 27: i17i22.
  • 3
    Heisler M. Different models to mobilize peer support to improve diabetes self-management and clinical outcomes: evidence, logistics, evaluation considerations and needs for future research. Fam Pract2010; 27: i23i32.
  • 4
    Simmons D, Voyle JA, Rush E, Dear M. The New Zealand experience in peer support interventions among people with diabetes. Fam Pract2010; 27: i53i61.
  • 5
    Dennis CL. Peer support within a health care context: a concept analysis. Int J Nurs Stud2003; 40: 321332.
  • 6
    Mead S, MacNeil C. Peer support: What makes it unique?Int J Psychosocial Rehab2006; 10: 2937.
  • 7
    Funnell MM. Peer-based behavioural strategies to improve chronic disease self-management and clinical outcomes: evidence, logistics, evaluation considerations, and needs for future research. Fam Pract2010; 27: i17i22.
  • 8
    Sarkar U, Fisher L, Schillinger D. Is self-efficacy associated with diabetes self-management across race/ethnicity and health literacy?Diabetes Care2006; 29: 823829.
  • 9
    Riessman F. The ‘helper-therapy’ principle. Social Work1965; 10: 2732.
  • 10
    Heisler M. Overview of peer support models to improve diabetes self-management and clinical outcomes. Diabetes Spectr2007; 20: 214221.
  • 11
    Boothroyd RI, Fisher EB. Peers for progress: promoting peer support for health around the world. Fam Pract2010; 27: i62i68.
  • 12
    Dale J, Caramlau IO, Lindenmeyer A, Williams SM. Peer support telephone calls for improving health. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2008; 4: CD006903.
  • 13
    Brownson CA, Heisler M. The role of peer support in diabetes care and self-management. Patient2009; 2: 517.
  • 14
    Tang TS, Ayala GX, Cherrington A, Rana G. A review of volunteer-based support interventions in diabetes. Diabetes Spectr2011; 24: 8598.
  • 15
    Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. The PRISMA Group Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement. PLoS Med2009; 6: e1000097.
  • 16
    Hoey LM, Ieropoli SC, White VM, Jefford M. Systematic review of peer-support programs for people with cancer. Patient Educ Couns2008; 70: 315337.
  • 17
    Macvean ML, White VM, Sanson-Fisher R. One-to-one volunteer support programs for people with cancer: a review of the literature. Patient Educ Couns2008; 70: 1024.
  • 18
    Smith SM, Paul G, Kelly A, Whitford DL, O’Shea E, O’Dowd T. Peer support for patients with type 2 diabetes: cluster randomised controlled trial. Br Med J2011; 342: 715.
  • 19
    Lorig K, Green M, Ritter PL, Jernigan V, Laurent DD, Case S et al.Online diabetes self-management program: a randomized study. Diabetes Care2010; 33: 12751281.
  • 20
    Dale J, Caramlau I, Sturt J, Friede T, Walker R. Telephone peer-delivered intervention for diabetes motivation and support: the telecare exploratory RCT. Patient Educ Couns2009; 95: 9198.
  • 21
    Cade JE, Kirk SFL, Nelson P, Hollins L, Deakin T, Greenwood DC et al.Education and psychological aspects: can peer educators influence healthy eating in people with diabetes? Results of a randomized controlled trial. Diabet Med2009; 26: 10481054.
  • 22
    Lorig K, Ritter PL, Villa FJ, Armas J. Community-based peer-led diabetes self-management: a randomized trial. Diabetes Educ2009; 35: 641651.
  • 23
    Murrock CJ, Higgins PA, Killion C. Dance and peer support to improve diabetes outcomes in African American women. Diabetes Educ2009; 35: 9951003.
  • 24
    Lorig K, Ritter PL, Villa F, Piette JD. Spanish diabetes self-management with and without automated telephone reinforcement. Diabetes Care2008; 31: 408414.
  • 25
    Anderson-Loftin W, Barnett S, Bunn P, Sullivan P, Hussey J, Tavakoli A. Soul food light: culturally competent diabetes education. Diabetes Educ2005; 31: 555563.
  • 26
    Keyserling TC, Samuel-Hodge CD, Ammerman AS, Ainsworth BE, Henríquez-Roldán CF, Elasy TA et al.A randomized trial of an intervention to improve self-care behaviours of African-American women with type 2 diabetes: impact on physical activity. Diabetes Care2002; 25: 15761583.
  • 27
    Pratt C, Wilson W, Leklem J, Kingsley L. Peer support and nutrition education for older adults with diabetes. J Nutr Elder1987; 6: 3143.
  • 28
    Heisler M, Vijan S, Makki F, Piette JD. Diabetes control with reciprocal peer support versus nurse care management: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med2010; 153: 507515.
  • 29
    Baksi AK, Al-Mrayat M, Hogan D, Whittingstall E, Wilson P, Wex J. Peer advisers compared with specialist health professionals in delivering a training programme on self-management to people with diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Diabet Med2008; 25: 10761082.
  • 30
    McKay HG, Glasgow RE, Feil EG, Boles SM, Barrera M. Internet-based diabetes self-management and support: initial outcomes from the Diabetes Network project. Rehabil Psychol2002; 47: 3148.
  • 31
    Glasgow RE, Boles SM, McKay HG, Feil EG, Barrera M. The D-Net diabetes self-management program: long-term implementation, outcomes and generalization results. Prev Med2003; 36: 410419.
  • 32
    Philis-Tsmikas A, Walker C, Rivard L, Talavera G, Reimann JOF, Salmon M et al.Improvement in diabetes care of underinsured patients enrolled in project dulce. A community-based, culturally appropriate, nurse case management and peer education diabetes care model. Diabetes Care2004; 27: 110115.
  • 33
    Comellas M, Walker EA, Zonszein J, Strelnick H. Training community health workers to implement diabetes self-management support to urban minority adults. Diabetes Educ2010; 36: 141151.
  • 34
    Tudor-Locke C, Lauzon N, Myers AM, Bell RC, Chan CB, McCargar L et al.Effectiveness of the First Step Program delivered by professionals versus peers. J Phys Act Health2009; 6: 456462.
  • 35
    Klug C, Toobert DJ, Fogerty M. Healthy changes for living with diabetes: an evidence-based community diabetes self-management program. Diabetes Educ2008; 34: 10531061.
  • 36
    Heisler M, Piette J. ‘I help you and you help me’: facilitated telephone peer support among patients with diabetes. Diabetes Educ2005; 31: 869879.
  • 37
    McKay HG, Seeley JR, King D, Glasgow RE, Eakin EG. The diabetes network internet-based physical activity intervention: a randomized pilot study. Diabetes Care2001; 24: 13281334.
  • 38
    Joseph DH, Griffin M, Hall RF, Sullivan ED. Peer coaching: an intervention for individuals struggling with diabetes. Diabetes Educ2001; 27: 703710.
  • 39
    Choudhury SM, Brophy S, Fareedi MA, Zaman B, Ahmed P, Williams R. Examining the effectiveness of a peer-led education programme for Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in a Bangladeshi population. Diabet Med2009; 26: 4044.
  • 40
    Matthews PH, Darbisi C, Sandmann L, Galen R, Rubin D. Disseminating health information and diabetes care for Latinos via electronic information kiosks. J Immigrant Minority Health2009; 11: 520526.
  • 41
    Uitewaal P, Bruijnzeels M, Hoop T, Hoes A, Thomas S. Feasability of diabetes peer education for Turkish type 2 diabetes patients in Dutch general practice. Patient Educ Couns2004; 53: 359363.
  • 42
    Plotnikoff RC, Johnson ST, Luchak M, Pollock C, Holt NL, Leahy A et al.Peer telephone counseling for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case-study approach to inform the design, development, and evaluation of programs targeting physical activity. Diabetes Educ2010; 36: 717729.
  • 43
    Tang TS, Funnell MM, Gillard M, Nwankwo R, Heisler M. The development of a pilot training program for peer leaders in diabetes: process and content. Diabetes Educ2011; 37: 6777.
  • 44
    Craig P, Dieppe P, Macintyre S, Michie S, Nazareth I, Petticrew M. Developing and evaluating complex interventions: the new Medical Research Council guidance. Br Med J2008; 337: a1655.
  • 45
    Fisher EB, Earp JA, Maman S, Zolotor A. Cross-cultural and international adaptation of peer support for diabetes management. Fam Pract2010; 27: i6i16.
  • 46
    Heisler M. Different models to mobilize peer support to improve diabetes self-management and clinical outcomes: evidence, logistics, evaluation considerations and needs for future research. Fam Pract2010; 27: i23i32.
  • 47
    Peers for Progress. Website. 2010. Available at Last accessed 1 March 2012.