Revealing the link between licensed outlets and violence: Counting venues versus measuring alcohol availability
Article first published online: 4 SEP 2011
© 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs
Drug and Alcohol Review
Special Issue: Alcohol and Violence. Guest Editors: Kathryn Graham and Michael Livingston
Volume 30, Issue 5, pages 524–535, September 2011
How to Cite
LIANG, W. and CHIKRITZHS, T. (2011), Revealing the link between licensed outlets and violence: Counting venues versus measuring alcohol availability. Drug and Alcohol Review, 30: 524–535. doi: 10.1111/j.1465-3362.2010.00281.x
- Issue published online: 4 SEP 2011
- Article first published online: 4 SEP 2011
- Received 17 August 2010; accepted for publication 2 November 2010.
- alcohol consumption;
- alcoholic beverage;
- domestic violence;
- drinking behaviour
Introduction and Aims.Associations between alcohol-related harms and numbers of outlets at the neighbourhood level have been demonstrated; however, the degree to which alcohol consumption or sales plays a part in levels of violence is not clear. This has contributed to uncertainty regarding the actual mechanisms by which outlet density may influence levels of violence. This ecological cross-sectional study investigated the effect of outlet numbers and alcohol sales on the risk of assault in Western Australia.
Design and Methods.For 2000/2001, information on type, number and wholesale alcohol purchases of all licensed outlets in operation, police-reported assault offences, socioeconomic/demographic data were obtained from official sources. Multivariate negative binomial regression was applied to at local government area level in order to assess associations between outlet density, alcohol sales and violence occurring in both licensed and domestic settings.
Results.Average alcohol sales volume per off-site outlet was significantly associated with all measures of assault. Numbers of on-site outlets significantly predicted violence with the exception of assaults occurring at residential premises. Alcohol sales from off-site outlets predicted violence occurring at on-site outlets.
Discussion and Conclusions.The link between on-site outlets and violence may be primarily underpinned by negative amenity effects while off-site outlet effects occur via increased availability. Alcohol sales volumes from off-site outlets influence levels of violence, which occur at both licensed and residential settings. The substantial and wide-ranging effects of liquor stores on alcohol-related harms may have been underestimated in the literature and by policy makers.[Liang W, Chikritzhs T. Revealing the link between licensed outlets and violence: Counting venues versus measuring alcohol availability. Drug Alcohol Rev 2011;30:524–535]