• [1] 
    Colfax G, Santos G-M, Chu P, et al. Amphetamine-group substances and HIV. Lancet 2010;376:45874.
  • [2] 
    United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2010 World Drug Report. Vienna, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2010.
  • [3] 
    Nicosia N, Liccardo Pacula R, Kilmer B, Lundberg R, Chiesa J. The economic cost of methamphetamine use in the United States, 2005. Los Angeles: RAND Drug Policy Research Center, Rand Cooporation, 2009.
  • [4] 
    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Naitonal Drug Strategy Household Survey report. Drug statistics series no. 25. Cat no. PHE 145. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2010.
  • [5] 
    Sara GE, Burgess PM, Harris MG, Malhi GS, Whiteford HA. Stimulant use and stimulant disorders in Australia: findings from the National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Med J Aust 2011;195:6079.
  • [6] 
    McKetin R, Lubman DI. Heavy stimulant use remains a significant health concern for Australia. Med J Aus 2011;195:5656.
  • [7] 
    Interactive alcohol and other drugs (AODT-NMDS) data cubes: all closed treatment episodes: client profile by drug of concern and treatment type by state/territory. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2002/03. Available at: (accessed October 2011).
  • [8] 
    Shoptaw S, Reback CJ, Peck JA, et al. Behavioral treatment approaches for methamphetamine dependence and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among urban gay and bisexual men. Drug Alcohol Depend 2005;78:12534.
  • [9] 
    Shoptaw S, Huber A, Peck J, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of sertraline and contingency management for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend 2006;85:1218.
  • [10] 
    Shoptaw S, Heinzerling KG, Rotheram-Fuller E, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of bupropion for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend 2008;96:22232.
  • [11] 
    Rawson RA, Marinelli-Casey P, Anglin MD, et al. A multi-site comparison of psychosocial approaches for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Addiction 2004;99:70817.
  • [12] 
    Rawson RA, McCann MJ, Flammino F, et al. A comparison of contingency management and cognitive-behavioral approaches for stimulant-dependent individuals. Addiction 2006;101:26774.
  • [13] 
    Srisurapanont M, Sombatmai S, Boripuntakul T. Brief intervention for students with methamphetamine use disorders: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Addict 2007;16:11116.
  • [14] 
    Baker A, Lee NK, Claire M, et al. Brief cognitive behavioural interventions for regular amphetamine users: a step in the right direction. Addiction 2005;100:36778.
  • [15] 
    Knapp WP, Soares BGO, Farrel M, Lima MS. Psychosocial interventions for cocaine and psychostimulant amphetamines related disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;(3):CD003023.
  • [16] 
    Srisurapanont M, Jarusuraisin N, Kittirattanapaiboon P. Treatment for amphetamine dependence and abuse (Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;(4):CD003022.
  • [17] 
    Shoptaw SJ, Kao U, Heinzerling K, Ling W. Treatment for amphetamine withdrawal. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;(2):CD003021.
  • [18] 
    Shearer J, Gowing LR. Pharmacotherapies for problematic psychostimulant use: a review of current research. Drug Alcohol Rev 2004;23:20311.
  • [19] 
    Elkashef A, Vocci F, Hanson G, White J, Wickes W, Tiihonen J. Pharmacotherapy of methamphetamine addiction: an update. Subst Abus 2008;29:3149.
  • [20] 
    McKetin R, Kelly E. Socio-demographic factors associated with methamphetamine treatment contact among dependent methamphetamine users in Sydney, Australia. Drug Alcohol Rev 2007;26:1618.
  • [21] 
    Hando J, Topp L, Hall W. Amphetamine-related harms and treatment preferences of regular amphetamine users in Sydney, Australia. Drug Alcohol Depend 1997;46:10513.
  • [22] 
    Wright S, Klee H, Reid P. Attitudes of amphetamine users towards treatment services. Drugs Educ Prev Pol 1999;6:7186.
  • [23] 
    Wallace C, Galloway T, McKetin R, Kelly E, Leary J. Methamphetamine use, dependence and treatment access in rural and regional North Coast New South Wales, Australia. Drug Alcohol Rev 2009;28:59299.
  • [24] 
    NSW Stimulant Treatment Program Steering Committee. Stimulant Treatment Program Evaluation Report 2011. Sydney: New South Wales Health, 2011. (forthcoming)
  • [25] 
    Kay-Lambkin FJ, Baker AL, McKetin R, Lee N. Stepping through treatment: reflections on an adaptive treatment strategy among methamphetamine users with depression. Drug Alcohol Rev 2010;29:47582.
  • [26] 
    Darke S, Hall W, Wodak A, Heather N, Ward J. Development and validation of a multi-dimensional instrument for assessing outcome of treatment among opiate users: the Opiate Treatment Index. Br J Addict 1992;87:73342.
  • [27] 
    Gossop M, Darke S, Griffiths P, et al. The Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) in English and Australian samples of heroin, cocaine and amphetamine users. Addiction 1995;90:60714.
  • [28] 
    Topp L, Mattick R. Choosing a cut-off on the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) for amphetamine users. Addiction 1997;92:15767.
  • [29] 
    Lukoff D, Nuechterlein KH, Ventura J. Manual for the expanded Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Schizophr Bull 1986;12:594602.
  • [30] 
    Ware JE, Kosinski M, Keller SD. How to score the SF-12 Physical and Mental Health Summary Scales, 2nd edn. Boston: The Health Institute, New England Medical Centre, 1995.
  • [31] 
    Wilcoxon F. Individual comparisons by ranking methods. Biometrics 1945;1:803.
  • [32] 
    Spieldman RS, McGinnis RE, Ewens WJ. Transmission test for linkage disequilibrium: the insulin gene region and insulin-dependence diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Am J Hum Genet 1993;52:50616.
  • [33] 
    Shoptaw SJ, Kao U, Ling WW. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;(4):CD003026.
  • [34] 
    McKetin R, Najman JM, Baker A, et al. Evaluating the impact of community-based treatment options on methamphetamine use: findings from the Methamphetamine Treatment Evaluation Study (MATES). Addiction 2012, in press. Doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.03933.x.
  • [35] 
    Hillhouse MP, Marinelli-Casey P, Gonzales R, Rawson RA. Methamphetamine Treatment Project Corporate Authors. Predicting in-treatment performance and post-treatment outcomes in methamphetamine users. Addiction 2007;102 (Suppl 1):8495.
  • [36] 
    Phillips B, Burns L. NSW Drug Trends 2009: findings from the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS). Australian Drug Trend Series No. 38. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, 2010.
  • [37] 
    Darke S. Self-report among injecting drug users: a review. Drug Alcohol Depend 1998;51:25363.