Since 1980, the recruitment of teachers in many countries has followed a systematic certification procedure, i.e. a selection procedure according to criteria set by the State which are considered the minimum qualification for entrance into the profession. The term used in the last few years to define the desired level of qualification of teachers is competence. The purpose of this article is two-fold: a) to review the relevant literature and research in order to record those qualifications that ensure teachers' pedagogical competence at international level, and b) to present the Greek case — a State that evaluates teachers' pedagogical competence before they become a part of the teaching profession — in order to reveal the strengths and limitations of this evaluation process. In brief, assessing teachers' pedagogical competence is a difficult and complex procedure, as competence is ensured through the acquisition of multiple — in terms of amplitude and content — qualifications. Assessing the acquisition of these qualifications is based, to a great extent, on the procedures followed and the practices of evaluation adopted. Given that contemporary research has triggered a relevant discussion in a context of pedagogical knowledge that secures pedagogical competence, assessing the acquisition of this knowledge is, to a certain degree, possible. The evaluation of pedagogical and teaching skills and opinions is more difficult, and the monitoring of viewpoints, attitudes and beliefs, as well as capabilities, is even more difficult.