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After the passage of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act in 1988, tribal gaming revenues increased dramatically. Using a differences-in-differences methodology with 1990 and 2000 census data, this study finds that American Indians (AI) on gaming reservations experience a 7.4% increase in per capita income and reductions in both family and child poverty rates relative to AI on non-gaming reservations. Large and medium casinos are associated with changes in well-being while smaller casinos are not. These results are sensitive to the inclusion of the Navajo reservation, a large non-gaming reservation with increased income during the 1990s. (JEL I32, L83)