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A substantial part of the U.S. inequality literature focuses on yearly levels and trends in pre-tax, post-transfer cash income and its distribution over time and finds that median income appears to be stagnating, with income growth primarily coming at higher income levels. When we use data from the Current Population Survey for 1995–2008 and add the value of employer- and government-provided health insurance coverage, not only does it increase the upward trend in the level of resources controlled by Americans, but also reduces the level of inequality in these resources and its upward trend. We then provide a highly stylized example of this broader income measure's value in capturing the impact of two key provisions of the Affordable Care Act of 2010—an expansion in Medicaid and the provision of subsidies to lower-income families for purchasing private coverage on state-run exchanges. Even though these incremental expansions build on existing systems of government-provided health insurance, we find that the vast majority of the benefits would still accrue to the bottom three deciles of the income distribution when we include the value of employer- and government-provided health insurance in our expanded yearly income measure. (JEL D31, H51, I14)