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This paper derives a theory of religious behavior and organization from the assumption that people seek to limit the risk associated with their religious activities. Alternative risk reduction strategies lead to different styles of religion: one centering on collective production, exclusivity, and high levels of commitment; another centering on private production, diversified consumption, and fee-for-service transactions. Western religions, particularly their more sectarian forms, exemplify the collective style, whereas Asian and New Age religions approximate the private.