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Condom promotion in Belize: self-efficacy of Belizean nurses


  • W.A. Nash MSN, PhD, ANP-BC

    Corresponding author
    1. Assistant Professor and Director of Practice and International Affairs, School of Nursing, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA
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  • Conflict of interest: The author has no known conflicts of interest to disclose. This study was funded in part by Sigma Theta Tau, Iota Zeta Chapter, Lilialyce Akers, and the Lewis Scholars Program at the University of Louisville.

Whitney A. Nash, School of Nursing, University of Louisville, 555 South Floyd Street, Louisville, KY 40292, USA; Tel: 502-852-5825; Fax: 502-852-8783; E-mail:


NASH W.A. (2011) Condom promotion in Belize: self-efficacy of Belizean nurses. International Nursing Review58, 477–483

Background:  Outside of abstinence, correct and consistent condom use is the single most effective tool to prevent the transmission human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This is particularly true in countries such as Belize where incidence rates remain high. Women are physiologically at higher risk for HIV, and many feel powerless to insist on condom use. Although nurses are in a position to promote condom use, variables that influence this decision are not clearly understood. In this study, we examined variables that influence a nurses' self-efficacy to promote and teach condom use to women specifically to reduce their HIV risk.

Methods:  Data related to self-efficacy, vicarious experience related to condom use promotion and a nurse's sexual relationship power were collected from nurses practising in Belize (n = 60). These data were cross-sectional and collected at the annual nurses' conference.

Results:  Both years of nursing education and positive vicarious experience promoting and teaching condom use to women were positively correlated to their self-efficacy to do so. Vicarious experience was significantly correlated to self-efficacy in a subgroup of nurses with lower sexual relationship power but not in those with higher sexual relationship power.

Conclusions:  When designing HIV continuing education programmes for nurses in Belize, it is important to consider level of nursing education and access to vicarious experience such as mentoring and role modelling. An additional factor to consider is the influence that a nurse's power in her own primary sexual relationship may play in the formation of her self-efficacy.