Converse Bergmann cline in a Eucalyptus herbivore, Paropsis atomaria Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): phenotypic plasticity or local adaptation?
Article first published online: 9 JAN 2008
© 2008 The Authors
Global Ecology and Biogeography
Volume 17, Issue 3, pages 424–431, May 2008
How to Cite
Schutze, M. K. and Clarke, A. R. (2008), Converse Bergmann cline in a Eucalyptus herbivore, Paropsis atomaria Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): phenotypic plasticity or local adaptation?. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 17: 424–431. doi: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2007.00374.x
- Issue published online: 9 JAN 2008
- Article first published online: 9 JAN 2008
- body size;
- converse Bergmann's rule;
- leaf beetle;
- Paropsis atomaria;
- season length;
Aim To measure latitude-related body size variation in field-collected Paropsis atomaria Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) individuals and to conduct common-garden experiments to determine whether such variation is due to phenotypic plasticity or local adaptation.
Location Four collection sites from the east coast of Australia were selected for our present field collections: Canberra (latitude 35°19′ S), Bangalow (latitude 28°43′ S), Beerburrum (latitude 26°58′ S) and Lowmead (latitude 24°29′ S). Museum specimens collected over the past 100 years and covering the same geographical area as the present field collections came from one state, one national and one private collection.
Methods Body size (pronotum width) was measured for 118 field-collected beetles and 302 specimens from collections. We then reared larvae from the latitudinal extremes (Canberra and Lowmead) to determine whether the size cline was the result of phenotypic plasticity or evolved differences (= local adaptation) between sites.
Results Beetles decreased in size with increasing latitude, representing a converse Bergmann cline. A decrease in developmental temperature produced larger adults for both Lowmead (low latitude) and Canberra (high latitude) individuals, and those from Lowmead were larger than those from Canberra when reared under identical conditions.
Main conclusions The converse Bergmann cline in P. atomaria is likely to be the result of local adaptation to season length.