• Australia;
  • beta-diversity;
  • biogeography;
  • cross-taxon congruence;
  • environmental correlates;
  • lizards;
  • macroecology;
  • non-stationarity;
  • species richness


Aims  (1) To map the species richness of Australian lizards and describe patterns of range size and species turnover that underlie them. (2) To assess the congruence in the species richness of lizards and other vertebrate groups. (3) To search for commonalities in the drivers of species richness in Australian vertebrates.

Location  Australia.

Methods  We digitized lizard distribution data to generate gridded maps of species richness and β-diversity. Using similar maps for amphibians, mammals and birds, we explored the relationship between species richness and temperature, actual evapotranspiration, elevation and local elevation range. We used spatial eigenvector filtering and geographically weighted regression to explore geographical patterns and take spatial autocorrelation into account. We explored congruence between the species richness of vertebrate groups whilst controlling for environmental effects.

Results  Lizard richness peaks in the central deserts (where β-diversity is low) and tropical north-east (where β-diversity is high). The intervening lowlands have low species richness and β-diversity. Generally, lizard richness is uncorrelated with that of other vertebrates but this low congruence is strongly spatially structured. Environmental models for all groups also show strong spatial heterogeneity. Lizard richness is predicted by different environmental factors from other vertebrates, being highest in dry and hot regions. Accounting for environmental drivers, lizard richness is weakly positively related to richness of other vertebrates, both at global and local scales.

Main conclusions  Lizard species richness differs from that of other vertebrates. This difference is probably caused by differential responses to environmental gradients and different centres of diversification; there is little evidence for inter-taxon competition limiting lizard richness. Local variation in habitat diversity or evolutionary radiations may explain weak associations between taxa, after controlling for environmental variables. We strongly recommend that studies of variation in species richness examine and account for non-stationarity.