Expanded view of the local–regional richness relationship by incorporating functional richness and time: a large-scale perspective

Authors

  • João Canning-Clode,

    Corresponding author
    1. Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, 647 Contees Wharf Road, Edgewater, MD 21307, USA,
    2. CIMAR/CIIMAR – Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050 – 123 Porto, Portugal,
    3. Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences at the University of Kiel, Duesternbrooker Weg 20, D-24105 Kiel, Germany,
      João Canning-Clode, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, 647 Contees Wharf Road, Edgewater, MD 21307, USA.
      E-mail: canning-clodej@si.edu
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  • Kelly O. Maloney,

    1. Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, 647 Contees Wharf Road, Edgewater, MD 21307, USA,
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  • Sean M. McMahon,

    1. Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, 647 Contees Wharf Road, Edgewater, MD 21307, USA,
    2. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Center for Tropical Forest Science, Apartado 0843-03092, Balboa, Ancon, Panama, Republic of Panama
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  • Martin Wahl

    1. Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences at the University of Kiel, Duesternbrooker Weg 20, D-24105 Kiel, Germany,
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João Canning-Clode, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, 647 Contees Wharf Road, Edgewater, MD 21307, USA.
E-mail: canning-clodej@si.edu

ABSTRACT

Aim  We investigate the relationship between local and regional richness in marine fouling assemblages using an expanded and globally replicated approach by incorporating two dimensions of diversity (taxonomic and functional) and different successional stages.

Location  Global.

Methods  In eight different biogeographic regions (Australia, Brazil, Chile, England, Italy, Japan, Portugal and Sweden) 68 polyvinylchloride (PVC) panels (15 × 15 × 0.3 cm) were deployed for colonization. Communities colonizing panels were analysed by measuring percentage cover at each of four different successional ages: 2, 4, 6 and 8 months. Local richness was assessed as the average number of species and functional groups (FGs) per panel and regional richness was evaluated as the estimated (Jack2) asymptote of the sample-accumulation curves for species and FG on experimental panels.

Results  We found that the shape of the relationship between local and regional richness depended on successional stage and the type of richness considered, i.e. taxonomic or functional richness. Hardly any relationship was detectable between local taxonomic richness and regional taxonomic richness at any successional stage. In contrast, the relation between local functional and regional functional richness shows a unimodal pattern of change during succession, passing through the stages ‘independent’, ‘unsaturated rising’, ‘saturated rising’ and once again ‘independent’.

Main conclusions  The relationship between local and regional richness, whether taxonomic or functional, frequently displays independence of the two scales, particularly in early and late phases of the successional process.

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