Increasing range mismatching of interacting species under global change is related to their ecological characteristics

Authors

  • Oliver Schweiger,

    Corresponding author
    1. UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Community Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, D-06210 Halle, Germany
      Oliver Schweiger, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Community Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, D-06210 Halle, Germany. E-mail: oliver.schweiger@ufz.de
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  • Risto K. Heikkinen,

    1. Finnish Environment Institute, PO Box 140, FI-00251 Helsinki, Finland
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  • Alexander Harpke,

    1. UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Community Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, D-06210 Halle, Germany
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  • Thomas Hickler,

    1. Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Unit of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Sölvegatan 12, S-22363 Lund, Sweden
    2. Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F) and Department of Physical Geography at Goethe-University, Senckenberganlage 25, D-60325 Frankfurt/Main, Germany
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    • Present address: Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F), Senckenberganalage 25, D-60325 Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

  • Stefan Klotz,

    1. UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Community Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, D-06210 Halle, Germany
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  • Otakar Kudrna,

    1. Naturmuseum Südtirol, Bindergasse 1, I-3910 Bozen, Italy
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  • Ingolf Kühn,

    1. UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Community Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, D-06210 Halle, Germany
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  • Juha Pöyry,

    1. Finnish Environment Institute, PO Box 140, FI-00251 Helsinki, Finland
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  • Josef Settele

    1. UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Community Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, D-06210 Halle, Germany
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Oliver Schweiger, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Community Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, D-06210 Halle, Germany. E-mail: oliver.schweiger@ufz.de

ABSTRACT

Aim  We investigate the importance of interacting species for current and potential future species distributions, the influence of their ecological characteristics on projected range shifts when considering or ignoring interacting species, and the consistency of observed relationships across different global change scenarios.

Location  Europe.

Methods  We developed ecological niche models (generalized linear models) for 36 European butterfly species and their larval host plants based on climate and land-use data. We projected future distributional changes using three integrated global change scenarios for 2080. Observed and projected mismatches in potential butterfly niche space and the niche space of their hosts were first used to assess changing range limitations due to interacting species and then to investigate the importance of different ecological characteristics.

Results  Most butterfly species were primarily limited by climate. Species dwelling in warm areas of Europe and tolerant to large variations in moisture conditions were projected to suffer less from global change. However, a gradient from climate to host plant control was apparent, reflecting the range size of the hosts. Future projections indicated increased mismatching of already host-plant-limited butterflies and their hosts. Butterflies that utilize plants with restricted ranges were projected to suffer most from global change. The directions of these relationships were consistent across the scenarios but the level of spatial mismatching of butterflies and their host plants increased with the severity of the scenario.

Main conclusions  Future changes in the co-occurrence of interacting species will depend on political and socio-economic development, suggesting that the composition of novel communities due to global change will depend on the way we create our future. A better knowledge of ecological species characteristics can be utilized to project the future fate and potential risk of extinction of interacting species leading to a better understanding of the consequences of changing biotic interactions. This will further enhance our abilities to assess and mitigate potential negative effects on ecosystem functions and services.

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