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Figure S1 Global distribution of human density.

Figure S2 Explanatory power and average regional significance of two current climate models of 1990 human densities as a function of geographically weighted regression (GWR) bandwidth.

Figure S3 Forecast changes in climate factors.

Figure S4 Annual growth rate of human population density between 1990 and 2015.

Figure S5 National average per capita CO2 emissions.

Figure S6 Standardized regression coefficients (stdβ) for climate factors from a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model representing 1990 human densities based on four climate predictors (average 1950–2000) and agricultural extent c. 2000.

Figure S7 Standardized regression coefficients (stdβ) for agricultural extent from a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model representing 1990 human densities based on four climate predictors (average 1950–2000) and agricultural extent c. 2000.

Figure S8 Standardized regression coefficients (stdβ) for climate factors from a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model between 1990 human densities and four climate predictors (1950–2000 average).

Figure S9 Climate vulnerabilities index (CVI) expressed as climate consistent changes in annual growth rate of human population density based on a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model between 1990 human density and four climate predictors and a 2050 climate forecast.

Figure S10 Global climate–demography vulnerability index (CDVI) estimated by subtracting climate vulnerabilities from demographic annual growth rates, displayed as percentage of annual growth rates of human density.

Figure S11 Climate vulnerabilities (CVI) expressed as climate-consistent changes in annual growth rate based on two human–climate models and three general circulation models for 2050 under the A2 scenario.

Figure S12 Global patterns of climate–demography vulnerability index (CDVI) for two human–climate regression models and three general circulation models for 2050 under the A2 scenario.

Table S1 Climate variables used to predict contemporary human densities and the number of models including each variable.

Table S2 Explanatory power and regional significance of geographically weighted regression (GWR) models of current human densities based on current climate predictors.

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