Variation in reef fish and invertebrate communities with level of protection from fishing across the Eastern Tropical Pacific seascape
Article first published online: 17 FEB 2011
© 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Global Ecology and Biogeography
Volume 20, Issue 5, pages 730–743, September 2011
How to Cite
Edgar, G. J., Banks, S. A., Bessudo, S., Cortés, J., Guzmán, H. M., Henderson, S., Martinez, C., Rivera, F., Soler, G., Ruiz, D. and Zapata, F. A. (2011), Variation in reef fish and invertebrate communities with level of protection from fishing across the Eastern Tropical Pacific seascape. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 20: 730–743. doi: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00642.x
- Issue published online: 9 AUG 2011
- Article first published online: 17 FEB 2011
- coral reef;
- Costa Rica;
- effects of fishing;
- marine reserve;
- UNESCO World Heritage
Aim To quantify general differences in reef community structure between well-enforced and poorly enforced marine protected areas (MPAs) and fished sites across the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) regional seascape
Location The Pacific continental margin and oceanic islands of Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia and Ecuador, including World Heritage sites at Galapagos, Coiba, Cocos and Malpelo
Methods Densities of reef fishes, mobile and sessile invertebrates, and macroalgae were quantified using underwater visual surveys at 136 ‘no-take’ and 54 openly fished sites associated with seven large MPAs that encompassed a range of management strategies. Spatial variation in multivariate and univariate community metrics was related to three levels of fishing pressure (high-protection MPAs, limited-protection MPAs, fishing zones) for both continental and oceanic reefs.
Results High-protection MPAs possessed a much greater biomass of higher carnivorous fishes, lower densities of asteroids and Eucidaris spp. urchins, and higher coral cover than limited-protection MPAs and fished zones. These results were generally consistent with the hypothesis that overfishing of predatory fishes within the ETP has led to increased densities of habitat-modifying macroinvertebrates, which has contributed to regional declines in coral cover. Major differences in ecological patterns were also evident between continental and oceanic biogeographic provinces.
Main conclusions Fishing down the food web, with associated trophic cascades, has occurred to a greater extent along the continental coast than off oceanic islands. Poorly enforced MPAs generate food webs more similar to those present in fished areas than in well-protected MPAs.