Appendix S1 Species list with their estimated range sizes and sampling frequencies. Reference sources for range size measurement are listed below.

Appendix S2 Map of Chinese geography showing the counties which are the basic units for species range sizes estimation. Black triangles represent sampling sites.

Appendix S3 Number of species from dominant families and different growth forms in each range size quartile. Means of range size of the five families and three growth forms are also shown.

Appendix S4 Scatterplots of leaf traits against species range size with 0.95, 0.75, 0.50, 0.25, 0.05 quantile regression estimates (solid lines).

Appendix S5 Altitude (meters a.s.l) and climatic conditions for species range size quartiles. Quartiles range from the first (narrowest-ranging 25% of species) to the fourth (widest-ranging 25% of species). Different letters (a, b, ab) denote significant differences at P < 0.05.

Appendix S6 Occurrence frequencies (number of sites) of species with different range sizes.

Appendix S7 Summary of ANOVA of the effects of range size (RS), GST (growing season temperature), soil, and the interactions between soil and RS, soil and GST on leaf N and P concentrations. df: degrees of freedom, SS: sum of squares, SS%, percentage of sum of squares explained. ***, P < 0.001; **, P < 0.01; *, P < 0.05; †, P < 0.1.

Appendix S8 Summary of regression models of leaf N and P concentrations as a function of soil nutrients, range size (RS) (or growing season temperature, GST) and soil × RS (or soil × GST).

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