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Keywords:

  • Biological invasions;
  • exotic species;
  • global patterns;
  • indigenous range;
  • invasive species;
  • naturalization;
  • naturalized range;
  • pine trees;
  • propagule pressure;
  • tree invasions

ABSTRACT

Aim  Pine trees (genus Pinus) represent an ancient lineage, naturally occurring almost exclusively in the Northern Hemisphere, but introduced and widely naturalized in both hemispheres. As large trees of interest to forestry, they attract much attention and their distribution is well documented in both indigenous and naturalized ranges. This creates an opportunity to analyse the relationship between indigenous and naturalized range sizes in the context of different levels of human usage, biological traits and the characteristics of the environments of origin.

Location  Global.

Methods  We combined and expanded pre-existing data sets for pine species distributions and pine species traits, and used a variety of regression techniques (including generalized additive models and zero-inflated Poisson models) to assess which variables explained naturalized and indigenous range sizes.

Results  Indigenous and naturalized range sizes are positively correlated but there are many notable exceptions. Some species have large indigenous ranges but small or no naturalized ranges, whereas others have small indigenous ranges, but have naturalized in many regions. Indigenous range is correlated to factors such as seed size (−), age at first reproduction (−), and latitude (+, supporting Rapoport's rule), but also to the extent of coverage of species in the forestry literature (+). Naturalized range size is strongly influenced by the extent of coverage of species in the forestry literature (+), a proxy for propagule pressure. Naturalization was also influenced by average elevation in the indigenous range (−) and age at first reproduction (−).

Main conclusions  The macroecological and evolutionary pressures facing plant groups are not directly transferable between indigenous and naturalized ranges. In particular, there are strong biases in species naturalization and expansion in invasive ranges that are unrelated to factors determining indigenous range size. At least for Pinus, a new set of macroecological patterns are emerging which are profoundly influenced by humans.