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Central European plant species from more productive habitats are more invasive at a global scale

Authors

  • Petr Dostál,

    Corresponding author
    1. Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-252 43 Průhonice, Czech Republic
    2. Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, Altenbergrain 21, CH-3013 Bern, Switzerland
      Petr Dostál, Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-252 43 Průhonice, Czech Republic. E-mail: dostal@ibot.cas.cz
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  • Wayne Dawson,

    1. Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, Altenbergrain 21, CH-3013 Bern, Switzerland
    2. Ecology, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstraße 10, D-78457 Konstanz, Germany
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  • Mark van Kleunen,

    1. Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, Altenbergrain 21, CH-3013 Bern, Switzerland
    2. Ecology, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstraße 10, D-78457 Konstanz, Germany
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  • Lidewij H. Keser,

    1. Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, Altenbergrain 21, CH-3013 Bern, Switzerland
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  • Markus Fischer

    1. Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, Altenbergrain 21, CH-3013 Bern, Switzerland
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Petr Dostál, Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-252 43 Průhonice, Czech Republic. E-mail: dostal@ibot.cas.cz

ABSTRACT

Aim  Accumulating evidence indicates that species may be pre-adapted for invasion success in new ranges. In the light of increasing global nutrient accumulation, an important candidate pre-adaptation for invasiveness is the ability to grow in nutrient-rich habitats. Therefore we tested whether globally invasive species originating from Central Europe have come from more productive rather than less productive habitats. A further important candidate pre-adaptation for invasiveness is large niche width. Therefore, we also tested whether species able to grow across habitats with a wider range of productivity are more invasive.

Location  Global with respect to invasiveness, and Central European with respect to origin of study species.

Methods  We examined whether average habitat productivity and its width across habitats are significant predictors of the success of Central European species as aliens and as weeds elsewhere in the world based on data in the Global Compendium of Weeds. The two habitat productivity measures were derived from nutrient indicator values (after Ellenberg) of accompanying species present in vegetation records of the comprehensive Czech National Phytosociological Database. In the analyses, we accounted for phylogenetic relatedness among species and for size of the native distribution ranges.

Results  Species from more productive habitats and with a wider native habitat-productivity niche in Central Europe have higher alien success elsewhere in the world. Weediness of species increased with mean habitat productivity. Niche width was also an important determinant of weediness for species with their main occurrence in nutrient-poor habitats, but not for those from nutrient-rich habitats.

Main conclusions  Our results indicate that Central European plant species from productive habitats and those species from nutrient-poor habitat with wide productivity-niche are pre-adapted to become invasive. These results suggest that the world-wide invasion success of many Central European species is likely to have been promoted by the global increase of resource-rich habitats.

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