Appendix S1 Butterfly species recorded in the study, host-plant trophic group and TRIM population trends.

Appendix S2 Phylogenetic relationships between the butterfly species present in Catalonia.

Appendix S3 Supplementary methods.

Appendix S4 A scheme of the structural equation models (SEMs) for species spatial distribution ranges.

Appendix S5 List of species, FST values and sources from which data were extracted.

Appendix S6 List of species and specimen data that were sequenced to obtain the average Kimura two-parameter genetic distances between Catalonia and Romania.

Appendix S7 Extended results of the principal component analyses (PCAs) of the adaptive trait continuum.

Appendix S8 Standardized major axis regressions between phenology, dispersal capacity, diet breadth and habitat aridity breadth.

Appendix S9 Phylogenetic signal observed in several butterfly traits and species-specific habitat variables.

Appendix S10 Comparison of the means of range, density, coefficient of variation of species richness and first axis PCA scores among trophic groups.

Appendix S11 Supplementary discussion.

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