SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Taylor, S. Understanding skin of colour. Suppl. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 46, S41S42 (2002).
  • 2
    Pathak, M.A. Acute and chronic effects of the sun. In: Fitzpatricks dermatology in general medicine, Vol 1 (Freedberg, I.M., Eisen, A.Z., Wolff, K., et al. eds), pp. 15981608. McGraw-Hill New York, (1999).
  • 3
    Kawada, A. UVB induced erythema, delayed tanning and UVA induced immediate tanning in Japanese skin. Photodermatology 3, 327333 (1986).
  • 4
    Rogers, J., Harding, C.R., Mayo, J., Banks, J. and Rawlings, A.V. Stratum corneum lipids: the effect of ageing and the seasons. Arch. Dermatol. Res. 288, 765770 (1996).
  • 5
    Declercq, L., Muizzuddin, N., Hellemans, L. et al. Adaptation response to human skin barrier to a hot and dry climate. J. Invest. Dermatol. 119, 716 (2002).
  • 6
    Choi, E.H., Brown, B.E., Crumrime, D., Chang, S., Man, M.Q. and Feingold, K.R. Mechanisms by which psychologic stress alters cutaneous barrier homeostasis and stratum corneum integrity. J. Invest. Dermatol. 124, 587595 (2005).
  • 7
    Yosipovitch, G., Xiong, G.I., Haus, E., Sackett-Lunden, L., Ashkenazi, I. and Maibach, H.I. Time-dependent variations of skin barrier function in humans: transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum hydration, skin surface pH and skin temperature. J. Invest. Dermatol. 110, 2023 (1998).
  • 8
    Le Fur, I., Reinberg, A., Lopez, S., Morizot, F., Mechkouri, M. and Tschachler, E. Analysis of circadian and ultradian rhythms of skin surface properties of face and forearm of healthy women. J. Invest. Dermatol. 117, 718724 (2001).
  • 9
    Boelsma, E., Hendriks, H.F.J. and Roza, L. Nutritional skin care: health effects of micronutrients and fatty acids. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 73, 853864 (2001).
  • 10
    Riley, P.A. Melanogenesis and melanoma. Pigment Cell Res. 16, 548552 (2003).
  • 11
    Ito, S. A chemist's view of melanogenesis. Pigment Cell Res. 16, 230236 (2003).
  • 12
    Dell'Angelica, E.C. Melanosome biogenesis: shedding light on the origin of an obscure organelle. Trends Cell Biol. 13, 503505 (2003).
  • 13
    Wenczl, E., van der Schans, G.P., Rosa, L., et al. Pheomelanin photosensitizes UVA-induced DNA damage in cultured human melanocytes. J. Invest. Dermatol. 111, 678682 (1988).
  • 14
    Alaluf, S., Heath, A., Carter, N. et al. Variation in melanin content and composition in type V and VI photoexposed and photoprotected human skin: the dominant role of DHI. Pigment Cell Res. 14, 337347 (2001).
  • 15
    Alaluf, S., Atkins, D., Barrett, K., Blount, M., Carter, N. and Heath, A. Ethnic variation in melanin content and composition in photoexposed and photoprotected human skin. Pigment Cell Res. 15, 112118 (2002).
  • 16
    Alaluf, S., Barratt, K., Blount, M. and Carter, N. Ethnic variation in tyrosinase and TYRP-1 expression in photoexposed and photoprotected human skin. Pigment Cell Res. 16, 3540 (2003).
  • 17
    Lu, H., Edwards, C., Gaskill, S., Pearse, A., Marks, R. Melanin content and distribution in the surface corneocytes with skin phototypes. Br. J. Dermatol. 135, 263268 (1996).
  • 18
    Ancans, J., Tobin, D.J., Hoogduijn, M.J., Smit N.P., Wakamatsu, K. and Thody, A.J. Melanosomal pH controls rate of melanogenesis, eumelanin/phaeomelanin ratio and melanosome maturation in melanocytes and melanoma cells. Exp. Cell. Res. 268, 2635 (2001).
  • 19
    Watabe, H. et al. Regulation of tyrosinase processing and trafficking by organellar pH and by proteasome activity. J. Biol. Chem. 279, 79717981.
  • 20
    Babiarz-Magee, L., Chen, N., Seiberg, M. and Lin, C.B. The expression and activation of protease-activated receptor-2 correlate with skin colour. Pigment Cell Res. 17, 241251 (2004).
  • 21
    Scott, G., Deng, A., Rodriguez-Burford, C. et al. Protease-activated receptor 2 a receptor involved in melanosome transfer, is upregulated in human skin by ultraviolet irradiation. J. Invest. Dermatol. 117, 14121420 (2001).
  • 22
    Tadokoro, T. et al. UV induced DNA damage and melanin content in human skin differing in racial/ethnic origin. FASEB J. 10, 11771179 (2003).
  • 23
    Corcuff, P., et al. Skin optics revisited by in vivo confocal microscopy: melanin and sun exposure. J. Cosmet. Sci. 52, 91102 (2001).
  • 24
    Yamashita, T., Kuwahara, T., Gonzalez, S. and Takahashi, M. Non-invasive visualization of melanin and melanocytes by reflectance-mode confocal microscopy. J. Invest. Dermatol. 124, 235240 (2005).
  • 25
    De Winter, S., Vink, A.A., Roza, L. and Pavel, S. Solar-simulated skin adaptation and its effect on subsequent UV-induced epidermal DNA damage. J. Invest. Dermatol. 117, 678682 (2001).
  • 26
    Bonnet Duquennoy, M., Lachman, N., Noblesse, E., Pincemail, J., Kurfurst, R. and Bonte, F. Influence of UV exposure on DNA damage in Chinese skin. Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 27, 3779 (2005).
  • 27
    Wagner, J.K., Parra, E.J., Norton, H.L., Jovel, C. and Shriver, M.D. Skin responses to ultraviolet radiation: effects of constitutive pigmentation, sex and ancestry. Pigment Cell Res. 15, 385390 (2002).
  • 28
    Rijken, F., Brunijnzeel, P.L.B., van Weedlden, H. and Kiekens, R.C.M. Responses of black and white skin to solar simulating radiation: differences in DNA photodamage, infiltrating neutrophils, proteolytic enzymes induced, keratinocyte activation and IL-10 expression. J. Invest. Dermatol. 122, 14481455 (2004).
  • 29
    Camel, E., Arnaud-Boissel, L., Schnebert, S., Neveu, M., Tan, S.K. and Guillot, J-P. Does Asian skin induce significant changes in sun protection factor determination compared to Caucasian skin: one of the first in vivo correlations. IFSCC Mag. 5, 3134 (2002).
  • 30
    Weigand, D.A., Haygood, C. and Gaylor, J.R. Cell layers and density of Negro and Caucasian stratum corneum. J. Invest. Dermatol. 62, 563568 (1974).
  • 31
    Johnson, L.C. and Corah, N.L. Racial differences in skin resistance. Science 139, 766769 (1963).
  • 32
    Reed, J.T., Ghadially, R. and Elias, P.M. Skin type but neither race nor gender influence epidermal permeability barrier function. Arch. Dermatol. 131, 11341138 (1995).
  • 33
    Hellemans, L., Muizzuddin, N., Declercq, L. and Maes, D. Characterization of stratum corneum properties in human subjects from a different genetic background. J. Invest. Dermatol. 124, 371 (2005).
  • 34
    Corcuff, P., Lotte, C., Rougier, A. and Maibach, H.I. Racial differences in corneocytes. Acta Derm. Venereol. (Stockh) 71, 146148 (1991).
  • 35
    Warrier, A.G., Kligmn, A.M., Harper, R.A., Bowman, J. and Wickett, R.R. A comparison of black and white skin using non-invasive methods. J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 47, 229240 (1996).
  • 36
    Manuskiatti, W., Schwindt, D.A. and Maibach, H.I. Influence of age, anatomic site and race on skin roughness and scaliness. Dermatology 196, 401407 (1998).
  • 37
    Roberts, D. and Marks, R. The determination of regional and age variations in the rate of desquamation: a comparison of four techniques. J. Invest. Dermatol. 74, 1316 (1980).
  • 38
    Hirao, T., Denda, M. and Takahashi, M. Identification of immature cornified envelopes in the barrier-impaired epidermis by characterization of their hydrophobicity and antignicities of the components. Exp. Dermatol. 10, 3544 (2001).
  • 39
    Rienertson, R.P. and Wheatley, V.R. Studies on the chemical composition of human epidermal lipids. J. Invest. Dermatol. 32, 4969 (1959).
  • 40
    Sugino, K., Imokawa, G. and Maibach, H.I. Ethnic difference of stratum corneum lipid in relation to stratum corneum function. J. Invest. Dermatol. 100, 587 (1993).
  • 41
    Berardesca, E., Rigal, J. and Leveque, J.L. In vivo biophysical characterization of skin physiological differences in races. Dermatologica 182, 8993 (1991).
  • 42
    Meldrum, H., Harding, C.R., Rogers, J.S. et al. The characteristic decrease in scalp stratum corneum lipids in dandruff is reversed by the use of a Zince Pyrithione containing shampoo. IFSCC Mag. 6, 36 (2003).
  • 43
    Wilson, D., Berardesca, E. and Maibach, H.I. In vitro transepidermal water loss: differences between black and white skin. Br. J. Dermatol. 199, 647652 (1988).
  • 44
    Estanislao, R., Suero, M., Galzote, C. et al. Characterization of Asian skin through in-vivo instrumental and visual evaluations: influences of age, season and skin care habits, 6th Scientific Conference of the Asian Societies of Cosmetic Scientists. Proceedings, 263269 (2003).
  • 45
    Aramaki, J., Kawana, S., Effendy, I., Happle, R. and Loffler, H. Differences of skin irritation between Japanese and European women. Br. J. Dermatol. 146, 10521056 (2002).
  • 46
    Berardesca, E., Pirot, F. and Singh, M. Differences in stratum corneum pH gradient when comparing white Caucasian and Black African American skin. Br. J. Dermatol. 139, 855857 (1988).
  • 47
    Berardesca, E. and Maibach, H.I. Sodium lauryl sulphate induced cutaneous irritation: comparison of White and Hispanic subjects. Contact Derm. 18, 136140 (1988).
  • 48
    Berardesca, E. and Maibach, H.I. Racial differences in sodium lauryl sulphate induced cutaneous irritation: black and white. Contact Derm. 18, 6570 (1988).
  • 49
    Hillebrand, G.G., Levine, M.J. and Miyamoto, K. The age dependent changes in skin condition in African-Americans, Asian Indians, Caucasians, East Asians & Latino's. IFSCC Mag. 4, 259266 (2001).
  • 50
    Caspers, P.J., van Pol, A., Puppels, G.J., Riggs, W.M. and Rawlings, A.V. Assessment of the effects of surgical handwashing by in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy. J. Invest. Dermatol. 124, 354 (2005).
  • 51
    Rebora, A. and Guarrera, M. Racial differences in experimental skin infection with Candida albicans. Acta Derm. Venereol. (Stockh) 68, 165168 (1988).
  • 52
    Quinton, P.M., Elder, H.Y., McEwan Jenkinson, D. and Bovell, D.L. Structure and function of human sweat glands. In: Antiperspirants & deodorants, Chapter 2 (Laden, K., ed.), pp. 1758 (1999).
  • 53
    Yamamoto A., Serizawa, S., Ito, M. Effect of aging on sebaceous gland activity and on the fatty acid composition of wax eaters. Invest. Dermatol. 89, 507 (1987).
  • 54
    Marshall, E.K., Lynch, V. and Smith, H.V. Variation in susceptibility of the skin to dichlorethylsulphide. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 12, 291301 (1919).
  • 55
    Weigand, D.A. and Mershon, G.E. The cutaneous irritant reaction to agent O-chlorobenylidene malonnitrile (CS). Quantitation and racial influence in human subjects. Edgewood Tech. Rep. 4332, February (1970).
  • 56
    Hicks, S.P., Swindells, K.J., Middelkamp-Hup, M.A., Sifakis, M.A., Gonzalez, E. and Gonzalez, S. Confocal histopathology of irritant contact dermatitis in vivo and the impact of skin colour (black vs white). J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 48, 727734 (2003).
  • 57
    Sueki, H., Whitaker-Menezes, D. and Kligman, A.M. Structural diversity of mast cell granules in black and white skin. Br. J. Dermatol. 144, 8593 (2001).
  • 58
    Hansson, L., Bergman, A., Ny, A., Eckholm, E. and Egelrud, T. Epidermal overexpression of stratum corneum chymotryptic enzyme, skin inflammation and itch. IFSCC Mag. 5, 279284 (2002).
  • 59
    Rawlings, A.V. and Matts, P.J. Stratum corneum moisturization at the molecular level: an update in relation to the dry skin cycle. Prog. Dermatol. 38, 112 (2004).
  • 60
    Edwards, R.R. and Fillingrin, R.B. Ethnic differences in thermal pain perception. Psychosom. Med. 61, 346354 (1999).
  • 61
    Frosch, P. and Kligman, A.M. A method for appraising the stinging capacity of topically applied substances. J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 28, 197 (1981).
  • 62
    Grove, G.L., Soschin, D.M. and Kligman, A.M. Adverse subjective reaction to topical agents. In: Cutaneous toxicology (Drill, V.A. and Lazar, P., eds), pp. 200210. Raven Press, New York (1984).
  • 63
    Rawlings, A.V., Watkinson, A., Rogers, J. et al. Abnormalities in stratum corneum structure, lipid composition and desmosome degradation in soap-induced winter xerosis. J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 45, 203220 (1994).
  • 64
    Robinson, M.K. Population differences in acute skin irritation response: race, sex, sensitive skin and repeat subject comparisons. Contact Derm. 46, 8693 (2002).
  • 65
    Foy, V., Weinkauff, R., Whittle, E. and Basketter, D.A. Ethnic variation in the skin irritation response. Contact Derm. 45, 346349 (2001).
  • 66
    Morimoto, T. Variations of sweating activity due to sex, age and race. In: The physiology & pathophysiology of the skin, Chapter 53 (Jarrett, A., ed.), pp. 16561666. Academic Press Inc. Ltd, London (1978).
  • 67
    Reilly, D.M., Ferdinando, D., Johnston, C., Shaw, C., Buchanan, K.D. and Green, M.R. The epidermal nerve fibre network characteristics of nerve fibres in human skin by confocal microscopy and assessment of racial variation. Br. J. Dermatol. 137, 163176 (1997).
  • 68
    Jourdain, R., De Lacharriere, O., Bastien, P. and Maibach, H.I. Ethnic variations in self perceived sensitive skin: epidemiological survey. Contact Derm. 46, 162169 (2002).
  • 69
    Ota, N., Horiguchi, T., Fujiwara, N., Kashibuchi, N., Hirai, Y. and Mori, F. Identification of skin sensitivity through corneocyte measurements. IFSCC Mag. 4, 914 (2001).
  • 70
    Grimes, P., Edison, B.L., Green, B.A. and Wildnauer, R.H. Evaluation of inherent differences between African American and White skin surface properties using subjective and objective measures. Cutis 73, 392396 (2004).
  • 71
    Griffiths, C.E.M., Wang, T.S., Hamilton, T.A., Voorhees, J.J. and Ellis, C.N. A photonumeric scale for the assessment of cutaneous photodamage. Arch. Dermatol. 128, 347351 (1992).
  • 72
    Larnier, C., Ortonne, J.P., Venot, A. et al. Evaluation of cutaneous photodamage using a photographic scale. Br. J. Dermatol. 130, 167173 (1994).
  • 73
    Tsukahara, K., Takema, Y., Kazama, H. et al. A photographic scale for the assessment of human facial wrinkles. J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 51, 127140 (2000).
  • 74
    Hillebrand, G.G., Miyamoto, K., Schnell, B., Ichihashi, M., Shinkura, R. and Akiba, S. Quantitative evaluation of skin condition in an epidemiological survey of females living in northern versus southern Japan. J. Dermatol. Sci. 27 (Suppl. 1), S42S52 (2001).
  • 75
    Loffler, H. and Aramaki, J.U. Influence of body mass index on skin susceptibility to SLS. Skin. Res. Tech. 8, 1922 (2002).
  • 76
    Chung, J.H. Photoaging in Asians. Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 19, 109121 (2003).
  • 77
    Tsukahara, T., Fujimura, T., Yoshida, Y. et al. Comparison of age-related changes in wrinkling and sagging of the skin in Caucasian females and in Japanese females. J. Cosmet. Sci. 55, 373388 (2004).
  • 78
    Rhodes, L.E., Durham, B.H., Fraser, W.D. and Friedmann, P.S. Dietary fish oil reduces basal and UVB generated PGE2 levels in skin and increases the threshold to provocation of PLE. J. Invest. Dermatol. 105, 532535 (1995).
  • 79
    Kaidby, K.H., Agin, P.P, Sayre, R.M. and Kligman, A.M. Photoprotection by melanin-comparison of Black and Caucasian skin. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 1, 249260 (1979).