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Principles and approaches to abate seabird by-catch in longline fisheries

Authors


Eric Gilman, 2718 Napuaa Place, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
Tel.: +1.808.988.1976
Fax: +1.808.988.1440
E-mail: egilman@blueocean.org

Abstract

Mortality in longline fisheries is a critical global threat to most albatross and large petrel species. Here we identify key principles and approaches to identify and achieve broad use of effective seabird by-catch avoidance methods. Despite the availability of highly effective and cost-saving seabird avoidance methods, few longline fleets employ them. Given the political context and capacity of management authorities of the majority of longline fisheries, it is critical to identify seabird avoidance strategies that are not only highly effective, but are also economically viable and commercially practical. Adoption of an international performance standard for longline baited hook–sink rate, and prescribing minimum gear weighting designs that meet this standard that are achievable by all longline fisheries, would be an important step forward towards resolving low use of seabird avoidance methods by vessels, including those in illegal, unregulated and unreported fisheries. Due to differences between fleets, no single seabird avoidance measure is likely to be effective and practical in all longline fisheries. Therefore, testing of seabird avoidance methods in individual fleets is needed to determine efficacy and economic viability. Longline fishers should directly participate in these trials as they have a large repository of knowledge and skills to effectively develop and improve seabird by-catch avoidance techniques, and this provides industry with a sense of ownership for uptake of effective by-catch reduction methods. Establishing protected areas containing seabird colonies and adjacent waters within a nation's EEZ can be an expedient method to address seabird by-catch. However, establishing high seas marine protected areas to restrict longline fishing in seabird foraging areas, which would require extensive and dynamic boundaries and large buffer zones, may not be a viable short-term solution because of the extensive time anticipated to resolve legal complications with international treaties, to achieve international consensus and political will, and to acquire requisite extensive resources for surveillance and enforcement. Analysis of results of research on seabird avoidance methods reveals that the most reliable comparisons of the efficacy of alternative strategies are from comparing the effectiveness of methods tested in a single experiment. Benefits from standardizing the reporting of seabird by-catch rates to account for seabird abundance are described. To provide the most precise inputs for seabird population models, estimates of seabird mortality in longline fisheries should account for seabird falloff from hooks before hauling, delayed mortality of seabirds caught but freed from gear, and mortality caused by hooks discarded in offal.

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