• analgesia;
  • brachial plexus;
  • dog;
  • pain;
  • regional anesthesia


Objective  To determine the anatomic landmarks for performing paravertebral forelimb block in the dog.

Study design  Technique description.

Animals  Nine canine cadavers.

Methods  Each intervertebral foramen between the C5 and T2 vertebrae was targeted. With the dog in lateral recumbency, a 20 SWG 3’’ spinal needle was placed at a 45 degree angle from a vertical transverse plane (with the dog standing this plane would be perpendicular to the ground) 2–3 cm lateral to the median plane for the three cranial intervertebral foramina and at a 90 degree angle with the same transverse plane 2–3 cm lateral to the median plane for the T1-T2 intervertebral foramina.

Results  Three out of nine (33%) of the cadavers had successful staining of all four desired nerves and the remaining six (66%) cadavers had successful staining of three of the four nerves. The C6-C7 spinal nerve was successfully stained in all nine cadavers. The other three nerves were each successfully stained in seven out of nine (78%) cadavers.

Conclusions and clinical relevance  The landmarks allow reliable placement of a solution at the nerves comprising the brachial plexus, allowing anesthesia of the entire forelimb in the dog.