Effects of early human handling on the pain sensitivity of young lambs
Article first published online: 22 JUN 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Volume 40, Issue 1, pages 55–62, January 2013
How to Cite
Guesgen, M. J., Beausoleil, N. J. and Stewart, M. (2013), Effects of early human handling on the pain sensitivity of young lambs. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 40: 55–62. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-2995.2012.00746.x
- Issue published online: 18 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 22 JUN 2012
- Received 23 December 2011; accepted 10 March 2012.
- human handling;
- pain sensitivity;
Objective Pain sensitivity of lambs changes over the first weeks of life. However, the effects of early treatments such as human handling on pain sensitivity are unknown for this species. This study investigated the effects of regular early gentle human handling on the pain sensitivity of lambs, indicated by their behavioural responses to tail docking.
Study design Prospective part-blinded experimental study.
Animals Twenty-nine singleton Coopworth lambs (females n = 14, males n = 15).
Methods Starting at one day of age, lambs were either handled twice daily for 2 weeks (Handled), were kept in the presence of lambs who were being handled but were not handled themselves (Presence), or were exposed to a human only during routine feeding and care (Control). At 3 weeks of age, all lambs were tail docked using rubber rings. Changes in behaviour due to docking were calculated and change data were analyzed using two-way anova with treatment and test pen as main factors.
Results All lambs showed significant increases in the frequency and duration of behaviours indicative of pain, including ‘abnormal’ behaviours, and decreases in the frequency and duration of ‘normal’ behaviours after docking. Handled lambs showed a smaller increase in the time spent lying abnormally after docking than did Control lambs (mean transformed change in proportion of 30 minutes spent ± SE: Control 0.55 ± 0.04; Handled 0.38 ± 0.03; Presence 0.48 ± 0.03; C versus H t = 3.45, p = 0.007).
Conclusions and clinical relevance These results provide some evidence that handling early in life may reduce subsequent pain sensitivity in lambs. While the behavioural effects of handling on pain behaviour were subtle, the results suggest, at the very least, that early handling does not increase pain sensitivity in lambs and suggests there is still flexibility postnatally in the pain processing system of a precocial species.